# Letter required for a job

Printers are frequently in doubt as to the quantity of type which will be required for a book or newspaper. The following is a useful plan for ascertaining the quantity of type required for newspapers, and thus enables any publisher to make his own calculations, aided, as he will he, by the knowledge of what proportion of the paper is to be set in each size of type he intends to use. This method is simple, and will be found to be practicably accurate. If but one page is to be set in a certain type, an allowance of 50 per cent. should be made for what will remain in the cases and for matter set up and left over. The greater the number of pages in the same size of type, the less the *proportion* of the extra weight of type needed. Thus:—

For 1 page weighing 100 lbs…1501bs. will be needed.

,,2 pages,,,, each…250,,,,,,

,,3,,,,,,,,…350,,,,,,

,,4,,,,,,,,…450,,,,,,

Therefore, if a new-paper of the size given is to be, say half Brevier and halt Nonpareil, 250 pounds of each will be needed. If, however, it is very prosperous, and columns are sometimes crowded out, of course extra type must he purchased. We have made no allowance for space occupied by column rules, Leads, dashes, &c. Experience has shown that estimates based as above give the *minimum* quantity of type necessary for a weekly newspaper; standing matter and letter remaining in case fully equalling the space occupied by leads, rules, &c, as well as the extra quantity of type allowed. No special rule can be laid down for daily papers, which vary so widely in the number of cases employed, the average quantity of matter crowded out or saved for a weekly, and the style of composition. It may be said, in a general way, that twice the weight of the pages is the least quantity of type that will answer for a daily alone, when worked most closely. What has been said, however, will afford a fair basis for calculations. In book offices, when the number and size of pages to be set down at one time are known, the quantity of type needed can he ascertained as above; an allowance of from twenty to fifty per cent. being made, according to the number of cases to be laid.

A pair of cases holds about fifty pounds of type. The average weight of a square inch of matter is 4½ ounces. A square inch of matter is equivalent to thirty-six square Pica ems, and from this may be deduced the fact that l28 square Pica ems of matter weigh on the average 1℔. On this datum is founded the following simple rule for estimating the weight of any given quantity of matter.

Rule.—Divide the area of the matter, expressed in square Pica ems, by 128.

Example I.—Required the weight of 56 columns of news, each 15 ems wide by 132 ems long (2½ in. by 22 in.).

15 × 133 × 56 = 110,880 square Pica ems.

÷ 128 = 866 lbs.

Example II.—Required the weight of type in a sheet of 32 pages, each 3 in. by 5 in., or 18 ems by 30.

18 × 30 × 32 = 17,280 square Pica ems.

÷ 128 = 135 lbs. weight required.

# Letter required for a job

Printers are frequently in doubt as to the quantity of type which will be required for a book or newspaper. The following is a useful plan for ascertaining the quantity of type required for newspapers, and thus enables any publisher to make his own calculations, aided, as he will he, by the knowledge of what proportion of the paper is to be set in each size of type he intends to use. This method is simple, and will be found to be practicably accurate. If but one page is to be set in a certain type, an allowance of 50 per cent. should be made for what will remain in the cases and for matter set up and left over. The greater the number of pages in the same size of type, the less the *proportion* of the extra weight of type needed. Thus:—

For 1 page weighing 100 lbs…1501bs. will be needed.

,,2 pages,,,, each…250,,,,,,

,,3,,,,,,,,…350,,,,,,

,,4,,,,,,,,…450,,,,,,

Therefore, if a new-paper of the size given is to be, say half Brevier and halt Nonpareil, 250 pounds of each will be needed. If, however, it is very prosperous, and columns are sometimes crowded out, of course extra type must he purchased. We have made no allowance for space occupied by column rules, Leads, dashes, &c. Experience has shown that estimates based as above give the *minimum* quantity of type necessary for a weekly newspaper; standing matter and letter remaining in case fully equalling the space occupied by leads, rules, &c, as well as the extra quantity of type allowed. No special rule can be laid down for daily papers, which vary so widely in the number of cases employed, the average quantity of matter crowded out or saved for a weekly, and the style of composition. It may be said, in a general way, that twice the weight of the pages is the least quantity of type that will answer for a daily alone, when worked most closely. What has been said, however, will afford a fair basis for calculations. In book offices, when the number and size of pages to be set down at one time are known, the quantity of type needed can he ascertained as above; an allowance of from twenty to fifty per cent. being made, according to the number of cases to be laid.

A pair of cases holds about fifty pounds of type. The average weight of a square inch of matter is 4½ ounces. A square inch of matter is equivalent to thirty-six square Pica ems, and from this may be deduced the fact that l28 square Pica ems of matter weigh on the average 1℔. On this datum is founded the following simple rule for estimating the weight of any given quantity of matter.

Rule.—Divide the area of the matter, expressed in square Pica ems, by 128.

Example I.—Required the weight of 56 columns of news, each 15 ems wide by 132 ems long (2½ in. by 22 in.).

15 × 133 × 56 = 110,880 square Pica ems.

÷ 128 = 866 ℔.

Example II.—Required the weight of type in a sheet of 32 pages, each 3 in. by 5 in., or 18 ems by 30.

18 × 30 × 32 = 17,280 square Pica ems.

÷ 128 = 135 lbs. weight required.