# Numerals

Numbers expressed by Roman letters, as Vol. II., chap. xxiv. Numeral letters were used by the Romans, to account by; and are seven in number, viz.: I V X L C D M. The reason for choosing these letters seems to be this, viz.: M being the first letter of Mille, stands for 1000; which M was formerly printed CIC. Half of that, viz.: IC, or D, is 500. C, the first letter of Cenium, stands for 100; which C was anciently printed E, and so half of it will be printed 50, L. X denotes 10, which is twice 5, made of two V’s, one at top, and the other at the bottom. V stands for 5, because their measure of five ounces was of that shape; and I stands for 1, because it is made of one stroke of the pen.

If a less number stands before a greater, it is a rule, that the less is taken from the greater; thus, 1 taken from 5 remains 4, IV. 1 from 10 remains 9, IX. 10 from 100, remains 90, XC. If a less number follows a greater, it is a rule that the less is added to the greater; as 5 and 1 make 6, VI. 10 and 1 make 11, XI. 50 and 10 make 60, LX., &c. Sometimes Small Capitals are used for Numerals, in the same manner as the seven sorts of Capitals; and look as well, if not neater, than these last; but we observe that, in the dates of years, some choose to put the first letter a Capital; as, Mdcccl &c., for which they may have their reasons; nevertheless, we join with those who disapprove of mixtures in figures, or to make them appear like nouns substantives, with capitals at the head of small ones.

To express numbers by Letters was not the invention of the Romans originally, because several nations, anterior to them, did use that method in counting: and the former Romans were particular only in this, that they employed to numerate by. But when printing was discovered, and before Capitals were invented, small letters served for Numerals; which they have done ever since; not only when the Gothic characters were in their perfection, but even after they ceased, and Roman was become the prevailing letter.

# Numerals

Numbers expressed by Roman letters, as Vol. II., chap. xxiv. Numeral letters were used by the Romans, to account by; and are seven in number, viz.: I V X L C D M. The reason for choosing these letters seems to be this, viz.: M being the first letter of Mille, stands for 1000; which M was formerly printed CIC. Half of that, viz.: IC, or D, is 500. C, the first letter of Cenium, stands for 100; which C was anciently printed E, and so half of it will be printed 50, L. X denotes 10, which is twice 5, made of two V’s, one at top, and the other at the bottom. V stands for 5, because their measure of five ounces was of that shape; and I stands for 1, because it is made of one stroke of the pen.

If a less number stands before a greater, it is a rule, that the less is taken from the greater; thus, 1 taken from 5 remains 4, IV. 1 from 10 remains 9, IX. 10 from 100, remains 90. XC. If a less number follows a greater, it is a rule that the less is added to the greater; as 5 and 1 make 6, VI. 10 and 1 make 11, XI. 50 and 10 make 60, LX., &c. Sometimes Small Capitals are used for Numerals, in the same manner as the seven sorts of Capitals; and look as well, if not neater, than these last; but we observe that in the dates of years some choose to put the first letter a Capital; as, Mdcccl, &c., for which they may have their reasons; nevertheless, we join with those who disapprove of mixtures in figures, or to make them appear like nouns substantives, with capitals at the head of small ones.

To express numbers by Letters was not the invention of the Romans originally, because several nations, anterior to them, did use that method in counting: and the former Romans were particular only in this, that they employed to numerate by. But when printing was discovered, and before Capitals were invented, small letters served for Numerals; which they have dorte ever since; not only when the Gothic characters were in their perfection, but even after they ceased, and Roman was become the prevailing letter.

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