Iconographic Encyclopædia


Military Sciences

War, that destructive strife of parties, a strife for life and death, has ever been the lot of nations, for even the longest peace has been only a preparation for war.

Immeasurable is the evil war has brought upon the world, immeasurable that which it will still bring, and yet we maintain that war must be; war is the spur of nations. Assuredly we would not deny the blessings of peace, we would not dispute that arts, sciences, commerce, and industry flourish only where it prevails; but in peace too the unused strength grows languid; in peace the most corrupting luxury, the most enervating indolence are born and nursed. Only that state, only that people, which in peace provides for war, will be prepared for every contingency; therefore should we study the art of war, therefore should we practise military sciences, and every citizen should be also a soldier. And is not this impulse to warfare based in man’s very nature? Is it not manifested even in the sports of thoughtless, unconscious boyhood?

As war, then, occupies so important a place in the circle of human activity, we would in what follows show by general outlines the character and manner of warfare among the earliest nations, and how in process of time this has been brought to the degree of perfection which we now find it displaying.

Sources of accurate information respecting the warfare of ancient nations are not wanting. The poets sang at first the deeds of warriors, and Homer and Virgil are rich in such materials. Historians related the strife of heroes, traits of heroism, and artifices of war; they described the equipments, the war-machines, and the field-equipages. The sculptures also of Thebes, Luxor, and Nineveh, of the Grecian monuments, of Trajan’s pillar, &c., the fresco paintings of Pompeii and Herculaneum are, besides the works of a Polybius, of a Vegetius, and others, excellent sources of knowledge.

Much nearer to us are the middle ages; and our armories and arsenals still contain in abundance the weapons and armor of that time. But even the interior arrangements of the middle-age warfare, since the brave George of Frondsberg, have been described for us in a large work by a citizen of Ulm, Leonard Fronsperger.

Warfare of Antiquity

If we would survey the warfare of antiquity we can only do so by examining that of the separate nations, for each had its own peculiar system, dependent partly upon the situation of the country, partly upon the political position and the civilization of its people. The warfare of antiquity we consider as extending from the earliest times of which we have any knowledge down to that period when, with the destruction of the Roman Empire, an entire change in the political condition of nations and a totally different mode of carrying on war commenced.

Among the nations of which history gives us the earliest knowledge Egypt stands first, for besides the historical books of the Bible, Herodotus and other authors supply copious accounts of this in so many ways remarkable nation.

The Egyptian Military System

In Egypt the separation between the different ranks was strictly defined, and in whatever caste an individual was born he found there the aim and purpose of his life. Thus, there was a sacerdotal caste, and besides others, a warrior caste also.

During the predominance of the sacerdotal caste, the historians of antiquity assign to the warrior caste the second rank in the state; but when the warriors, no longer permitting themselves to be ruled by a priest-king, chose their ruler from among their own caste, they assumed the foremost rank. Menes was the first king so chosen.

V. Plate 1: Weapons of the Egyptians, Medes, and Persians
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The idea of an army of mercenaries never occurred to the ancient Egyptians; military service was given as a privilege to a certain class in the nation, and they intrusted the defence of their country to men who had something to lose; for the common soldier possessed not less than twelve ares (about six acres), which land served for the support of his family in peace, and was free from taxation. In the time of Herodotus the warrior caste was separated into two divisions, the Calasyrians and the Hermotybians. The first numbered about 250,000 men and occupied about 4\(\frac{1}{2}\) nomes in the Delta; while the Hermotybians were but 160,000 strong and dwelt in the nomes of Middle Egypt, Chemmis, and Thebes. Strabo makes the war power much more important, indeed almost twice as great; and this is probable, for at the time of Herodotus Egypt already hastened to its downfall. As Egypt was compelled constantly to secure its boundaries against the inroads of foreign nations, a part of the army was always in service; the garrisons of the different military posts relieved each other at stated periods, which were fixed at two years. Such a garrison, 100,000 strong, which was left for three years unrelieved, abandoned its post and established itself as a military colony at the cataracts of the Nile. The medium strength of the armed force of Egypt in time of peace is estimated at 180,000, but the details of their organization we know only from the sculpture-strewn walls of old monuments. In these the different parts of the army can be distinguished with tolerable accuracy. First come those who fought in chariots, necessarily in smaller proportion than other arms. Each car had two wheels, was open behind, harnessed with two horses, and furnished with javelin, bow and arrows, or battle-axe. At the warrior’s right stood the driver. These chariots took among the Egyptians the place of cavalry, since they are said to have had no horsemen. If horsemen are seen on old monuments it is only singly, and usually as unarmed messengers. The remainder of the army consisted of infantry. Of this the heavy armed, which fought in line, carried breast-plate, helmet, shield, spear, or battle-axe and sword; the others, light troops, were bowmen, slingers, and scythe-men. Pl. 1 shows a great variety of Egyptian weapons, as they are found partly upon old monuments and partly in catacombs and the pyramids. Fig. 1 shows a two-edged straight sword; fig. 2, a curved sabre sharpened only on the outer edge; fig. 3 is a dagger; and fig. 4 a short mace, which in hand to hand combat was a very dangerous weapon. Fig. 5 is a shield of rectangular shape; but these are found also with a round piece taken out on the right side, and small ones entirely round for light troops. In order to protect the throat and upper part of the breast those who fought in chariots and the light troops wore a breast-plate (fig. 6) either of strong leather or metal; and the former, as well as at times the heavy armed and the bowmen, wore a shirt of woven mail (fig. 22). Upon the head were worn helmets of the most various forms, and figs. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12, show several patterns of these, some of which were of leather and some of metal. Fig. 9 is an archer’s helmet of the oldest form; fig. 12 a king’s of the time of Herodotus; figs. 10 and 11, chiefs’ helmets of heavy armed infantry. Fig. 14 is a javelin with a hook, and fig. 13 shows the case in which such javelins were carried. Fig. 15 is a quiver with a cover for such arrows as are represented in fig. 16; such a quiver was fastened by a chain or strong thong passing over the shoulder, and lay obliquely across the back, the opening on the right side. Fig. 17 is a spear. Figs. 18 and 19 battle-axes, such as were carried by the heavy armed in addition to the spear. The bows were very large and strung with sinew. The emblem of the warrior caste was the vulture, and in all representations of battles this bird is always seen near the king.

The troops marched and manœuvred in regular order and movement by legions or companies to the sound of the trumpet or the drum and fife. Instead of standards they carried insignia such as are shown in figs. 20 and 21. The king was commander-in-chief, his sons or his bravest men his generals. The king shared personally in all the fatigues of war, and stood in his chariot: armed from head to foot he hurled his darts upon the foe or smote him with the battle-axe. A tamed lion, accoutred for the battle-field, was always beside the king’s chariot. The troops were diligently trained in time of peace by various gymnastic exercises, in performing which they went almost naked, and had only a broad leather belt about the body. Thus, too, they often fought in war, as is shown in numberless instances by the sculptures. The dignitaries of the host were called Œris; the captain was adorned with an ostrich feather; officers of other grades were distinguished by different insignia. Every nome was commanded by a general.

The castrametation of the Egyptians was simple. A palisade carefully guarded inclosed the camp. The tent of the king or commander was upon the side opposite to the entrance, in its neighborhood smaller tents for the subordinates; the tamed lion, his feet fettered, was with his keeper beside the king’s tent. Horses and asses were arranged symmetrically at the entrance of the camp; opposite, the chariots, baggage and equipage wagons for the horses, for the asses pack-saddles with panniers. Upon the right hand side of the camp was arranged the effective force, and here soldiers and recruits were trained and disciplined; upon the left were the hospitals and lazarettoes. The principal exercises were performed outside the camp. On the march the war-chariots went behind and on both sides of the column, the heavy armed infantry protected by their large shields in the centre; at all exposed points the light troops formed an advanced guard.

Upon the naval force and warfare of the Egyptians we shall give details under the head of Naval Sciences.

The Phœnician Military System

Next to the Egyptians in importance at the age of which we are treating stand the Phœnicians. All knowledge of their earliest formation and first undertakings is lost, and for the little we know about them we are indebted to the Bible. The Phœnicians had established themselves on the Syrian coast upon the narrow strip of land extending from Aradus to Tyre. Sidon was the oldest city, and from her Tyre and other colonies were founded.

A consolidated Phœnician kingdom indeed had never any real existence, but only a league of small states which lent each other mutual assistance against external foes. At the head of this confederacy stood Tyre. Carthage and Gades were the heads of other colonies.

Of a standing army with the Phœnicians we know nothing, at least not a native one; but the small population of their cities must always have compelled a resort to mercenaries in war, and accordingly the garrison of Tyre consisted of Persians, Lydians, Lycians, and the contingent of Aradus. The mode of warfare of the Phoenicians we learn from

The Carthaginian Military System

Carthage, a Phœnician colony, which came frequently in contact with the cultivated nations of the next age, and whose origin and history were therefore studied by them, was at once a land and sea power. Upon her naval strength we shall treat under its proper head.

It lay in the very nature of a state like Carthage that only a small portion of her citizens could become soldiers; these were principally the distinguished and the noble; and for them especially the cavalry were organized. The cavalry were lavish in expense, and were permitted to wear rings, as many indeed as they had made campaigns. Diodorus tells us that in an army of 70,000 men only 2500 were citizens; but on the other hand that in time of need all took arms, and that once the city of Carthage alone furnished 40,000 infantry and 1000 horsemen. The Carthaginians proper formed a peculiar corps, usually the body-guard of the general, composed of footmen and cavalry.

V. Plate 5: Scenes of Ancient Warriors
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The great army, however, which Carthage brought into the field, consisted of mercenaries; and nearly half of Africa and Europe sent their hirelings to them. Half naked Gauls stood side by side with white-clad Iberians; savage Ligurians beside well equipped Nasamones and Lotophagi. Carthaginians and Phoenician Africans formed the centre; countless swarms of Numidian horsemen, from all the races of the desert, the wings of this vast host. Balearic slingers were the advanced guard, and elephants with their Ethiopian drivers upon their towers (pl. 5, fig. 3) made, as it were, a chain of movable fortresses along its front. This Carthaginian order of battle with elephants is shown m pl. 13, fig. 6.

The Military Systems of Media and Persia

If now we turn to Asia, the Medes and Persians will, of all people known to ancient history, most attract our attention. From the Medo-Assyrian kingdom of Arbaces, a Median kingdom proper separated itself, under Deioces, about 700 years before Christ, whose king first established an organized army among the Medians, and then among the subjected Persians, by separating the lancemen, archers, and cavalry into distinct divisions. Yet only under Cyrus did the armament and discipline become effective.

In every province of the empire, spread over the level country, or collected into garrisons, were troops which differed in their organization. As to the first, their number was exactly fixed for each province. The main strength was cavalry, but there were also archers, slingers, and heavy armed infantry. The province was compelled to maintain the force; and with respect to administrative government, they were subject to the satrap, but the command was the king’s alone, by whom the troops were yearly mustered, and without whose consent no satrap could discharge them. In this manner was the whole land, independently of political divisions, separated into military districts, each with its appropriate muster-place. The division of these troops through the country was into bodies of 1000 men each, whose commander was called a chiliarch. Cyrus had in Upper Asia 100,000 men. His general Abrocomas commanded 300,000, and the army upon the Granicus numbered 40,000. Distinguished from these troops were the garrisons of the fortified cities, which had again their own commanders. Those just named were the royal troops; but besides these were the household troops of the nobility, whose number often amounted to many thousands.

Originally the whole Persian army was composed of Persians, but afterwards these withdrew from the service and their place was supplied by hirelings, partly Asiatics, partly Hyrcanians, Parthians, and Sacians; the flower of the army, however, at that time consisted of Greeks. The national army of Persia was organized by dividing the whole population able to bear arms into squads of ten, each having its chief, then came the commander of a hundred, then the chiliarch commanding 1000, and then the commander of 10,000 men; thus it was easy to assemble very rapidly the largest force, as it needed only an order to the myriarch, the chief of 10,000, who communicated it to his subordinates. These same divisions were retained afterwards with the mercenaries. The higher officers stood in great respect, and the generals were always relations of the king. When a great war commenced, then a levy en masse was ordered; all the nations of the empire were assembled and divided as above. Upon the march no order was observed; the king with the Persians was in the centre, the other nations marched as they chose. As little order was maintained in their encampments; for the king and chief officers there were tents; all the rest bivouacked in the open air. Only on approaching the hostile boundary was there a muster and division of the host by nations; and when Xerxes mustered his army in Europe, it was found to contain fifty-six nations. Among them were Sagartians, who, otherwise weaponless, caught their foe in a leathern noose, Libyans with armed chariots (pl. 5, fig. 4), and Arabs upon camels.

The arms of this motley host were naturally of equal diversity. A number of the weapons used by Asiatic nations who belonged mostly to the Persian armies are brought together on pl. 1. Thus fig. 23 shows the bow and quiver of the Medes and Persians, whose shield of strong leather with a rim and boss of iron is represented in fig. 24. The bow was carried usually in the case belonging to it, shown in fig. 25, where a spear also is represented. Figs. 26 and 27 show Median and Persian helmets and storming-caps. The Parthians had bows as in fig. 28, and spears whose momentum was increased by a ball at the butt, as in fig. 29. One of the showy helmets of the Syrians, made of leather with metal ornaments, is represented in fig. 30; while fig. 31 shows a peculiarly formed and often painted helmet of leather bound with iron, worn by the Armenians. The Scythian heavy armed infantry were clad in a leathern cuirass, strengthened by thin scales of iron, as shown at fig. 32, wore a leathern helmet bound with strong iron bands (fig. 33), and carried an oval, often richly ornamented shield of leather, covered entirely with metal plate (fig. 34). The bow (fig. 36) was with them only secondary, and was, therefore, small and light; but they carried clubs with long spikes, for blow or thrust, and maces set with iron spikes, as shown in fig. 35, where both are given. The short sword, or more properly long dagger (figs. 37, 38), they had in common with the Dacians, of whose leathern helmets, gaily painted and the head-piece studded with metal scales, an example is given in fig. 45; while fig. 44 shows one of the Dacian field badges, such as were carried by the larger divisions of the army, and which were distinguished from each other by the most various forms. The Mysians had circular shields plated with metal, as in fig. 39, and javelins (figs. 42, 43), whose shaft was often carved in rings or spirals, with a counter-weight for greater momentum, and on this weight a short spike for close combat. Quite similar were the Thracian javelins, of which figs. 40 and 41 give examples, save that the counter-weight was often nearer the middle. The Thracian helmet was of buffalo-hide, bound with iron. The skin of the head was often chosen for this purpose, with the horns kept on; often that form was merely imitated, and false horns added (fig. 55). The Thracian shield was light and small, usually of the crescent form, and painted (fig. 56). The Phrygians belonging to the heavy infantry had short woollen tabards (fig. 46), usually embroidered in rich patterns, and often covered also with metal rings. Their helmets, of which figs. 47 and 48 give examples, were imitations of the Phrygian cap, of buffalo leather, gaily painted, with a crest and neck-piece to deaden descending blows, and with cheek-pieces; frequently they were surmounted by a horse-tail. As indeed the whole equipment of the Phrygians displays superior elegance, so this appears also in their crescent-shaped shields of buffalo-hide, painted and adorned with iron rings (fig. 50), and in their bows and quivers (fig. 49). The Phrygian battle-axes (figs. 51–54) were light, sometimes long, sometimes short, and often with a point for thrusting. The axe was their chief weapon, and was usually broad-headed on one side, but narrowed to a point on the other, that it might smite through helm and shield.

The Military Systems of Macedonia and Greece

The Macedonians and Greeks owing their existence to war, and involved constantly in hostilities on one side or another, were compelled to perpetual vigilance as to the perfection of their military force. Hence we find among them, at a very early period, a completely organized army and a peculiar tactic, which were so much the more necessary as the Greeks were not in a condition to maintain a very numerous force, and were, therefore, usually obliged to encounter their enemies with greatly inferior numbers, an inequality to be counterbalanced only by superior intelligence. Thus on the plain of Marathon fought scarcely 10,000 Athenians. Great armies were formed only by the union of several states; and at the battle of Platæa, where perhaps the largest Grecian army was collected, were numbered 111,000 men, of whom, however, only 38,000 were heavy armed, and of the light armed 37,000 were Spartan helots.

V. Plate 2: Greek and Etruscan Warriors
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Grecian warfare, and therewith the formation of their military system, may be divided into three periods. The first is that of the Persian war; the second, that of the Peloponnesian or internal war of the Greeks to the time of Philip; and the third, that of the Macedonian, Achaian, and Ætolian wars, in which period fall the wars of Alexander the Great and the war with Rome. The expeditions of the Greeks before the Persian contest belong to the mythic age, and then, as indeed also in the commencement of the historical, Grecian warfare was in its infancy. The Grecian heroes still fought naked, though well armed (pl. 2, fig. 1). Of the wars of the mythic age, we shall mention only the Theban and the Trojan. The traditions which the poets give of these show that here only rude strength was brought into play, and even that so imperfectly guided, that the desired result was attained only after a long period, sometimes not at all, or by means of single combats, which were regarded as a kind of divine decision. Thus the Theban war terminated by the duel between two brothers, in which both fell, not to mention other single combats of similar character.

When Greece, however, was assailed by external foes, the Greeks held fast and firm together, and the greatest men of Greece devoted themselves to the organization of her warfare. They began to carry on war systematically; laid out plans by which they would endeavor to conduct the military operations; practised in peace the manœuvres required in war; studied their arms and means of defence, improving the old and inventing new. They devised and tested organizations for their army, so that were war declared, the army might be brought promptly into activity and consist of disciplined troops. The land force, however, though sufficient, was yet less perfectly organized than the naval, since the geographical position of Greece caused her enemies in almost every case to approach her by sea, so that the first and most decisive combat fell to the lot of the fleet. In the department of this work which is devoted to naval affairs, we shall find occasion to treat of the ancient Greek navy and its system, and we confine ourselves here exclusively to the land force.

The Greek army consisted of infantry and cavalry. The infantry were either heavy armed (ὁπλιται, Hoplites), light armed (ψιλοι, Psilites), or formed a middle class (πελτασται, Peltastes). The first had long spears (24 feet at first, afterwards somewhat shorter) and broad shields; the second had bows, javelins, and slings; the last, shields and short lances. The cavalry also were divided into light and heavy, and as middle class served a species of soldier who fought sometimes on foot and sometimes mounted. With the heavy armed both horse and rider were clad in mail; their weapon was a long spear, often pointed at both ends. The light armed had mailless horses, and carried javelins or arrows. The heavy cavalry consisted of citizens, the light of mercenaries. The best horsemen were the Thesalian. Saddles and stirrups were not used; the horse was ridden bare-backed (pl. 2, figs. 12 and 13). The Athenian cavalry numbered at first only 69 men, but were afterwards increased to 1200. Before the introduction of cavalry, and indeed at the time of Homer, the armed chariot with partially mailed horses was used (pl. 5, fig. 4). These chariots were harnessed usually with two, but sometimes with three or four horses, of which, however, only the two inside drew; the others, merely guided by the reins, served only to increase the onset. Upon the car stood the warrior and the driver. One kind of these chariots had a sharp spike projecting from the pole, and sharp scythes set on the ends of the axles, as shown in the representation, and were called scythe-cars. The battle-cars were mostly two-wheeled, yet some had four wheels. At the time of the Persian war such battle and scythe-cars were still in use; elephants and camels were first used in the time of Alexander, who saw them in the Indian armies. The former carried turrets upon their backs, in which from ten to thirty soldiers were placed (pl. 5, fig. 3).

V. Plate 3: Weapons of the Greeks, Etruscans, and Romans
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The arms of the Greeks were divided into offensive and defensive, or weapons of attack and of defence; and the former again into missiles and weapons of percussion, of which the last were most carefully perfected. The earliest offensive weapons were the club, lance, and javelin. The lance, of which pl. 3, fig. 4, and also the two preceding plates give various representations, was long—not less, indeed, than from fourteen to sixteen ells for the longest, the Sarissa, which was used by the phalanx; but there were also shorter ones, of four to six ells. The shorter had sometimes two points, as in fig. 4. When the lance, however, was only three or four ells long, it was called a javelin, and each warrior had then from two to four of them, sometimes double pointed also (pl. 2, figs. 3, 4). The sword was usually straight, and very short, because it was a point of honor to let the foe approach closely. The straight sword (pl. 3, fig. 14), which was carried at the right side in a belt from the shoulder, had a broad blade, seldom any point, but a short cross-guard, and was used for cutting; there was, however, another and shorter sword (fig. 16), which served as a long dagger, and had no crossguard. Pl. 2, figs. 6, 7, 8, 10, 16, and 17, show the manner of using both kinds. A curved sword is also frequently seen (pl. 3, fig. 21). This was very slightly bent, sharpened only on one edge, had a cross-guard, and, for better balance, was heaviest at the lower end. The sheath (fig. 20) was straight, like a quiver. The bow had various forms; thus, the Theban bow (fig. 27) had a single curve, while the Athenian was double curved, with a straight piece in the middle, for the better placing of the arrow (fig. 17). The bows were made sometimes of naturally curved wood or horn, sometimes cut out of hard close-grained wood; they were strung with sinew or horse-hair. When not in use they were thrust into the bow-case (figs. 2, 3). The arrows, of light wood and very long, were carried in a quiver (fig. 2), which hung usually over the shoulder on the left side, as with the Amazons (pl. 2, fig. 2), but was also often carried on the back; to its barbed head wisps of tow, dipped in pitch and lighted, were often fastened, for the purpose of setting fire to objects. The sling, with which stones, leaden balls, and often fire balls were thrown, consisted of several thongs, with a centre-piece in which the projectile lay, but was soon laid aside as the use of the lance came to be better understood. To defensive arms belong, first, the helmet; and with the Greeks this piece of armor had the greatest variety of forms, from the simplest skull-cap to the highest adornment. Pl. 3, figs. 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13, give examples of this, and on pl. 2, also, are various patterns. The helmet was sometimes of hide, studded with metal, and painted; sometimes entirely of wrought metal. The principal part was the cap, to which cheek-pieces were attached, serving as well to give a firmer hold upon the head as to protect the face of the wearer (pl. 2, fig. 7; and the trumpeter, fig. 9). Often, however, these parts were wanting in the helmet, while the neck-piece was never absent. Finally we remark the crest; this had often the strangest forms, as in pl. 3, figs. 10 and 11, but was usually adorned with a plume of feathers or horse-hair, which flaunted in the gayest colors; frequently, indeed, the plume was triple, as fig. 13; or there were other plumes at the sides, as fig. 12; or buffalo horns, as fig. 10. In most cases, a horse-tail floated from the lower end of the crest. Often the helmet had a vizor, to protect the face, as fig. 9; this vizor had holes for the eyes, and in combat was pushed down (pl. 2, figs. 3 and 6). The cuirass consisted of a breast and a back-piece, and extended from the neck to the hips, where it was held together by a belt. From the back-piece forward a plate passed over each shoulder, uniting the two halves at the upper part. Pl. 3, figs. 18 and 19, show cuirasses, one of which reaches below the hips, but the other has a row of metal plates, or leather straps covered with woven wire, which protect the thighs and abdomen. On pl. 2, figs. 3–8, 10, and 16, show various kinds of cuirasses. The cuirass was usually of ox-leather, gaily painted and studded, plated or bound with metal. Sometimes, though only with the heavy cavalry, they were wholly of metal plate; but usually were merely set with scales (fig. 7); or the front-piece only (fig. 5) was a plate of metal. Frequently only the front-piece, the half-mail, was worn; particularly by the mercenaries, who were thereby deterred from flight, and by the light troops, for ease of motion. Later the cuirass was made of linen, doubled with a thick-quilted wadding. To this cuirass belonged a breastplate of thin iron, lined with wadding, and worn close to the body under the cuirass; and a tabard without sleeves, worn also under the cuirass; often arm-pieces were added, which then extended from the shoulder over half the upper part of the arm (figs. 16 and 17). The Amazons, from the Black Sea, wore complete woven mail (fig. 2), and leggings set with scales. With the cuirass belonged also the greaves, or leg-pieces, of which pl. 3, fig. 5, shows, in the upper figure, the inside; and in the lower, the outside. These protected the shin-bone, and frequently the knee also from injury; were made of hammered metal plate, and fastened by two straps on the back of the leg (pl. 2, figs. 4 and 10); these greaves were usually ornamented; they were made also of thick woollen stuff sometimes, and then were closed behind (figs. 3, 6, 9, and 17). Soldiers wore usually on their feet soles of thick leather, sandals, which were fastened with straps around the instep and ankle; the cavalry wore a kind of boot (pl. 2, figs. 12 and 13) with falling tops. Lastly, we have to mention the shield. This was usually of willow wicker-work, covered with leather or metal plate, or else entirely of ox-leather; but always the verge, at least, was plated. The shields were often showily decorated, and painted with lively colors; sometimes they had peculiar emblems, a species of blazonry; they were usually of curved form, and had always two handles on the inner side, by means of which they were carried on the left arm (fig. 3). In the centre of the shield was generally an elevation, a point, the boss of the shield, partly to strengthen it there and make a protection from assault, and partly that arrows might glance from it more easily. The shield was large or small, according to the character of the troops. The heavy armed troops had large and long shields, covering the whole body. Pl. 3, figs. 1 and 6 show rude shields, in front and side view; fig. 7 shows the inside. The light armed troops and the cavalry had small, round, Argolic shields (fig. 8). The shields shown in figs. 1 and 8 were used by the Thebans.

The army organization of the Greeks is rather complicated, but very systematic in arrangement. The first division is the hekatontarchy, a body of one hundred men, which separated into four files (lochos), consisting each of twenty-four men and a lochagos. Each file was again divided into two decades, and each decade into two pempades, under the decadarchs and pempadarchs, who stood in the ranks. Ten such hekatontarchies made a chiliarchy, commanded by a chiliarch, under whom two pentacosiarchs, chiefs of five hundred, and five syntagmatarchs, chiefs of two hundred, commanded. Two chiliarchies had again an especial commander, the telarch or merarch. Four chiliarchies formed a phalanx, whose commander was called strategos (phalangarch); the double phalanx (8,000 men), however, was under a kerarck, and the quadruple (16,000) under a hegemon. The Macedonian phalanx was armed with long spears, and formed with a front of five hundred files, and depth of sixteen. The term, phalanx, was originally applied to a certain number of men, but came afterwards to signify the whole army drawn up in order of battle. On both sides of the phalanx cavalry was stationed, to cover the flanks.

The front and rear rank men were called protostates and epistates; those of the inner files, parastates. For the lochages of the protostates, who had ever to sustain the first attack, the strongest and bravest men only were chosen; equally important, however, were the posts of the rearmost ranks (urages), who had to be brave soldiers, as, in case of attack in the rear, they had to face about and repulse the foe. In the open phalanx six feet, in the closed three, and in the narrow phalanx only one and a half feet were assigned to each man. The last order bore much resemblance to the Roman testudo (tortoise) (pl. 13, fig. 5), only that it was quadrangular, and not covered over; although instances are found in which the circular form was assumed.

Half the phalanx was usually composed of light troops; the files were not over eight deep; two files made a systasis, two systases a pentekontarchy, and two of the last a hekatontarchy (128 men); each hekatontarchy had in addition a trumpeter (pl. 2, fig. 9), a standard-bearer, an adjutant, and a herald (fig. 11). Two hekatontarchies were a psilagia, of which two formed a xenagia (512 men), and four a systremma. Two systremmas were an epixenagia, four a styphos (4,096 men), and two stypha an epitagma (8,192 men), which had eight principal officers, namely: four epixenages and four systremmatarchs. The peltastes were a medium between heavy and light armed troops. They formed subsequently the body-guard of Alexander, the leucaspides or argyraspides, so called from their silver shields.

The cavalry, again, had a peculiar division. An ile consisted of 64 men; two iles were an epilarchy; two of which, 256 men, formed a tarentinarchy. The hipparchy contained 512 men, and two of these formed an ephipparchy; two ephipparchies a tolas, and two toloi an epitagma of 4,096 men. Two battle-cars were a zygarchy, four a syzygarchy, eight an epizygarchy, sixteen a harmatarchy, twenty-four a keras, and forty-eight a phalanx. The commanders of one elephant were called zoarchs, of two therarchs, of four epitherarchs, and of eight, that is of a turma, ilarchs. Sixteen elephants were an elephantarchy, thirty-two a keratarchy, and sixty-four a phalanx, which a phalangarch or elephantarch commanded.

V. Plate 4: Greek and Roman Troop Movements
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The movements of the troops, as well in place as on the march, were very intricate. Klisis was a quarter-wheel to the right or left from a halt; metabole was the half-wheel, and was made either to the right or the left. Of the turnings of the phalanx we mention the wheel, epistrophe (pl. 4, fig. 1, wheel on a halted pivot), which was made from a b to a c, to the right or left; and on the outermost lochagos, a, of the halted flank as a pivot. When this wheel was reversed, it was called anastrophe (fig. 2), and the movement was in the direction of the arrow from a d b to a c. The perispasmus (fig. 3) is a double epistrophe, so that the section describes a half-circle from a d b to a c. By this wheel the phalanx gained its whole depth to the rear, and presented the urages instead of the lochages to the foe. The ekperispasmus (fig. 4) is a triple epistrophe, in which the section a b d moves in the direction of the arrows, a, c. Changes of front were executed by countermarches as well as by wheels; the countermarch of a phalanx was either by file or by division, and each of these movements could be executed in three different ways. The Macedonian counter-march by file (fig. 5). The new front line is A A, the old BB; the enemy’s line C. The first division makes here a metabole, while the other divisions file round close to the first, in the direction from a to b, and establish themselves in their former order, in rear of it. The Laconian counter-march by file (fig. 6) is the reverse of the preceding. AA is the new, BB the old front line; C, the enemy’s position. It will be seen, that while by the first movement the phalanx gains its depth to the rear, by the second it gains its depth to the front. In this movement the last division, the urages, remain stationary, while the other divisions, a, b, and c, file round by the flanks, and establish themselves in the positions d, e, and f, when the urages face about. The Cretan, Persian, or Carian countermarch by file (fig. 7) differs from the others in having no changes of place, the phalanx only changing its front line. The file-leaders, a, face together to the right about and march, followed by their proper files, towards b, until the file-leader has taken the place of his rear rank man. The Macedonian counter-march by divisions (fig. 8) began always upon the flank which was nearest the foe A, and finished by the former left flank becoming the right. The Laconian countermarch by divisions (fig. 9) was a movement of attack, and began upon the wing which was furthest from the foe A; in this likewise the former left wing became the right, but established itself nearer the foe than before. In the Cretan countermarch by divisions (fig. 10), one wing took the place of the other without any change of ground.

Another manœuvre was duplication, diplasiasmus (fig. 11), and was effected in two ways, either by accession of force and thus without extension of front, or by opening the files, so that the front a b occupied after duplication the length c d. In this case the second division stepped into the intervals of the first, the fourth into those of the third, &c., the odd files, in short, next to the even. If, instead of the front, the depth was to be increased, the files opened to the rear, and the even files stepped behind the odd.

The order of battle of the phalanx was either parallel to the enemy, or, as in fig. 12, oblique, one wing being nearer to the foe A than the other. The vanguard was called protaxis, the rearguard epitaxis.

If a section of the phalanx was thrown forward and its place supplied from a supporting corps-de-reserve, this was called parembole; but if a section of the reserve attached itself to the right or left wing of the phalanx, or to both (fig. 14), this manœuvre was called prostaxis. Entaxis was when the light armed fought between the heavy armed, but if the light troops formed “en-potence” on the flanks of the phalanx, in order to cover them, that was called hypotaxis (fig. 15). The march of the troops was either paragogic or epagogic. In the epagogue (fig. 16), the front was parted into subdivisions, which marched one behind the other (in sections). In the paragogue (fig. 17), the files faced to the right or left about, and gained ground by a flank movement. The flank nearest the foe was always strengthened. The column was composed of two or more phalanges; usually there were two of these, which marched with a flank of 32 files (fig. 18). Had a phalanx two opposite fronts, so that one half of it turned their backs to the other half (fig. 19), it was called antistomos. Were two phalanges so united that the lochages formed the two fronts, while the urages stood in the middle (fig. 20), they called this a diphalangia with two fronts; while the reversed position (fig. 21), where the lochages were in the middle and the urages formed the outer fronts, was the diphalangic antistomos. Finally, we must mention a particular form of diphalangia, namely that of two equal fronts (fig. 22), which arose where the urages of one phalanx and the lochages of another stood in the middle.

A particular order of battle was the wedge (embolon), which was either solid or hollow. The solid wedge (pl. 13, fig. 3, and pl. 4, fig. 25 a b c), which Ælian describes, was a triangle at whose apex c a single man, or according to others, three men stood. The hollow wedge (fig. 23) was formed when two phalanges, a b and c d, so united, under an acute angle, that the flanks b and d met at the vertex. This order of battle was used to break with irresistible force the hostile ranks. The reversed wedge, koilembolon (fig. 24), had the open side made by the phalanges a b and c d, from b to c turned towards the foe, and was used to inclose the hostile wedge, wherefore this manœuvre was called the forceps. The rhombus was a combination of the embolon and the koilembolon. Here belongs also another order of battle, which was called the boar’s-head, and which is represented in pl. 4, fig. 30. It will be seen at once that it is really nothing but a solid wedge, as the sections a b, c d, e f, g h, i k, l m, n o, p q, r s, t u, and v are integral parts of a phalanx (pl. 13, fig. 4). The simplest order of battle, however, and therefore generally the best, is the square, which was likewise applied in various ways by the Persians and Greeks. That this square should have a good proportion for cavalry, it was requisite that the front should be at least twice the depth, and thus the ulamos of the Spartans had ten horsemen in front and five in file, in all therefore fifty men. For a perfect square, three men were placed in front on one in depth. The plaision was an oblong figure inclining to oval, and the plinthion was in the form of a parallelogram. Here belongs also that arrangement of the phalanx which was not rectilinear, namely the concave phalanx (pl. 4, fig. 27), in which the flanks were thrown forward and the centre retired; and the convex phalanx (fig. 26), in which the flanks were retired and the centre advanced. In actual combat, however, these evolutions were not carried out exactly as represented in the above figures, but a movement as in figs. 28 and 29 found preference, which nearly resembled our formation in echelon.

The strategoi gave their commands, when possible, by the voice alone; when this was drowned by the roar of battle, they had the trumpeters (pl. 2, fig. 9), adjutants, hyperetes, and heralds (fig. 11), which last were distinguished from the other troops by their dress, and were inviolable. Besides these, numerous other persons were attached to the army, as the field-surgeons, sutlers, and overseers of war-machines and baggage. The last marched in front or rear of the army, on the right or left flank, or in the centre, the latter only when attack was expected from various quarters.

The combat ended, the slain of the victors were buried, but in the earliest times those of the conquered left to the beasts of prey. Afterwards this usage was abandoned, and instead the Greeks often took their dead home with them for burial, or burned them and sent home the ashes. At the funeral and after the same, a death-feast (pl. 5, fig. 1) was held, in which orators celebrated the deeds of the fallen heroes. As an instance of sepulchral rites upon a grand scale, we here mention the funeral procession of Alexander the Great (pl. 6, fig. 1) ordered by Ptolemy. The coffin was of gold, and in it lay the king’s body wrapped in spices; over the coffin was a gold-embroidered purple tapestry, and thereupon Alexander’s armor. Over the car arched a golden canopy set with jewels; this was 15 feet 11 inches broad and 17 feet 7\(\frac{1}{2}\) inches long. Beneath the canopy stood a throne of gold adorned with raised work, and over this a crown. At each corner of the arch stood a golden Victory, bearing a trophy. The peristyle of Ionic columns, upon which the canopy rested, was also of gold, and behind it a golden net, adorned above with paintings, which formed as it were the cella of a temple, before which two lions kept watch. The whole rested upon a platform which was supported on two axles, having each two Persian wheels, whose naves and spokes were gilded. Golden lions’-heads, holding a javelin in their jaws, formed the end of the axles. The car itself was so artfully constructed, that even inequalities of the ground did not disturb the perpendicularity of the structure. This car had four poles, and to each sixteen mules were harnessed, four abreast, each mule wearing a small golden horn, a jewelled neck-band, and little bell. This whole equipage made the journey from Babylon to Memphis (700 miles) without accident.

The Roman Military System

With respect to the military system of the Romans in the earliest times our information is very defective, yet the writings of Livy teach us that even in the age of the kings their warfare had already begun to elevate itself into a certain regularity. At the time of Romulus the people were divided into three tribes of ten curiæ, and each tribe was required to furnish 1000 foot and 100 horse. This army was commanded by three tribunes. In addition to this they had 300 cavalry, celeres, for the king’s body-guard. Under Servius Tullius, who divided the people into four tribes, the strength of the legion was increased to 4000 foot and 400 horse. All were divided into centuries, so that there were forty centuries of foot and four of horse. Tullus Hostilius and Tarquinius Priscus increased the army yet further. The armament took place according to the census which Servius Tullius introduced, who also increased the cavalry to 2400 men. The first class of citizens had Argolic shields, spears, cuirass, iron skull-caps, greaves, and swords, and formed the van. The second class had the same weapons, with no cuirass, but long shields; they formed the second line. The third class had neither cuirass nor greaves; the fourth only large shields, spears, and swords; the fifth class were armed only with slings and javelins, and stationed outside the main order of battle, which was very similar to the Greek phalanx. The sixth class, the paupers, were free from military service. The cavalry was chosen from the richest and most distinguished citizens.

V. Plate 7: Ranks and Allies of the Roman Army
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The first improvement which the Romans introduced into the Grecian order of battle was the division of the phalanx into three lines: the hastati, principes, and triarii or pilani. The hastati (pl. 7, fig. 13) formed the first line, and had light javelins; the principes (fig. 14) stood in the second line and were heavy armed; they formed the main body, and had heavy javelins. The triarii (fig. 15), who made the third line, the reserve, had also heavy javelins, afterwards lances. The velites (fig. 12), light troops, had very light javelins and round shields; in rapid attacks they sprang up behind the cavalry on horseback and dismounted on reaching the required spot.

V. Plate 10: Military Trappings of Ancient Rome
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The Roman legion, which under Servius Tullius was 4400 strong, was increased after the battle of Cannae to 5000, and under Marius to even 6000, which was its strength also under the emperors. Each consul, of whom there were two, had the guidance of two legions., so that the consular army consisted of four legions. The troops were chosen from the 35 tribes in this manner: from each group of four equal sized men, each tribune alternately chose a man; after selection, and the administration of the oath of allegiance, each legion was divided into two parts, the heavy and light troops. Of those between 17 and 25 years of age, 1200 were light armed; the remainder were divided into hastati (from 25 to 32), principes (32 to 40), and triarii (40 to 45), and then the legion received its standard and field badges. Pl. 10, figs. 1 and 2, show legion-eagles; figs. 3 and 4 standards; and figs. 5–15 various field badges of the smaller sections. The standards of the infantry were called signa; those of the cavalry, vexilla. The principal standard was of gold and purple; some were striped. The field badges were adorned with wreaths, turrets, and likenesses of different emperors and heroes. The standards and badges were carried by chosen, trusty men, standard-bearers, signiferi (pl. 7, figs. 16 and 17). They wore usually the skin of a lion or bear.

During the monarchy the kings were themselves commanders-in-chief of the army; in their stead came afterwards the consuls and the prætors with their legates. The two consuls had chief command on alternate days. To the consuls followed in rank the tribunes, then the centurions (figs. 18 and 19), who commanded 100, and the decuinons or decani, who commanded 10 men. In the time of the republic the dictator was commander-in-chief and named his own subordinates.

V. Plate 8: Soldiers and Officers of Roman Times
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The Imperator (general-in-chief) (pl. 8, fig. 1) filled one of the first places in Rome; to him the soldiers swore fealty; he had before him, as token of the highest power, the lictor (pl. 8, fig. 3), an officer of justice, who also executed the sentence of death, and behind him a crowd of officers and soldiers (pl. 8, fig. 4, and pl. 5, fig. 2). He named the legates (pl. 8, fig. 6), whom the Senate confirmed, and who commanded next himself They were men of courage, experience, and foresight, usually had served a consulate, and were employed also in concluding treaties. After the prefects came the tribunes (fig. 2), whose position we have already mentioned; but the proper magistrate for the army was the prefect of the legion, in the absence of the legate the commander, from whom the tribunes, &c., received the directions for guard-duty, watchword, &c., and the supervisor of all the munitions of war.

Each of the divisions of the infantry of the legion was subdivided into 15 maniples; in all, therefore, into 45. Each maniple had 60 common soldiers, two (triarii only one) centurions, and a signifer. To each maniple of the hastati belonged also 20 men of light troops. The principes had no light troops, but the triarii had 30 vexilli to every 60 men, a centurion and a standard-bearer; half of these were called rorarii, the other half accensi. At the time of the Punic wars, however, the number of maniples in the legion was reduced to 30, but their numerical strength, except among the triarii, was doubled; so that a legion consisted of 1200 hastati, 1200 principes, and 600 triarii, to which are to be added 3200 light troops, who were divided equally among the 30 maniples. Each legion was further divided into ten cohorts, each of which contained always three maniples of the three several arms. Every Roman soldier had his prescribed place in time of battle, which he might not change without orders, and thus each decury fought independently. The auxiliaries were usually attached to the legion, forming, as it were, light troops. They were either Italian nations, as the Etruscans, one of whose archers is shown in pl. 2, fig. 14, and in figs. 15, 16, 17, and 18, a horn-blower and other soldiers; or Samnites, or other nations in alliance with the Romans. Pl. 7, figs. 1 and 2, show commanders of such Italian allies; fig. 3, a Samnite; fig. 4, an African; fig. 5, a Sarmatian; figs. 6 and 7, German confederates; and pl. 8, fig. 5, Sarmatian mailed horsemen.

Of the other light troops belonging to the Roman armies we mention here:

  1. The slingers (pl. 7, fig. 10), who rendered very good service in war; the most renowned were those of the Balearic isles.
  2. The javelinmen, who fought with darts and javelins which they threw by hand. The Carthaginians and Romans employed these against cavalry.
  3. The archers (pl. 2, fig. 14), who shot arrows and even short darts from a bow.
  4. The dart-men, who had barbed darts which they threw by hand, and which were attached to a thong so as to be drawn back after they had struck, rendering the wound usually fatal.
  5. The crossbow-men shot round pebbles and bolts from crossbows.
  6. The ferentarii had slings, javelins, and stones, which they threw with the hand only; they were always in the van of the army, and a portion were mounted. They were employed also to bring fresh weapons from the magazines to those who had expended their supply.

The field-music of the Romans was designed principally for giving the requisite signals in time of action. For this were employed the tuba or trumpet; buccina, the bugle-horn; and cornu, the common horn. Of the tuba there were six different kinds, part of metal and part of reed; they were perfectly straight, and grew larger towards the lower orifice, which was often in the shape of a lion’s head or dragon’s jaws.

Pl. 7, fig. 8, shows a Roman trumpeter (tubicen) as he went into battle; like the standard-bearer, he wore usually, instead of helmet, the head skin of a lion or tiger. The buccina was also of metal, and was bent into the circular form; fig. 9 shows a horn-blower (buccinator or cornicen) equipped for battle. The horn, cornu, was a common ox-horn, usually silver-mounted. The army knew by the note of the horn whether it was to halt, advance, or retreat. Besides these musicians, however, the army had also shalm and cithern players. When the standards were to advance the signal was sounded with the horns, otherwise with the tuba only; but the chief signal was given with the buccina, by order of the imperator, beside the prætorium; thus also was proclaimed the completion of an execution.

The legionary cavalry was raised from that part of the equestrian order (the equites) who were assessed at 10,000 asses ($1000), which was increased afterwards to 400,000 sestertii (S20,000). They received their horses from the state. Towards the close of the republic the equites freed themselves from the service, and the cavalry then consisted principally of foreigners. (Pl. 8, fig. 8, a decurion of cavalry; fig. 9, a cavalry soldier; and fig. 7, two standard-bearers of cavalry. The cavalry of a legion amounted usually to 300 men, or one horseman to ten foot soldiers, yet that proportion was now and then violated, particularly in later times; in the confederate legion the cavalry was double this strength. The 300 cavalry were divided by the tribunes, according to the number of maniples composing the legion, into 30 decuries, or, according to the number of cohorts, into 10 turmæ, so that a turma contained 30 men. Each turma had three decurii, of whom the first led the turma. The turma had besides three uragi, who closed the files, and an ensign. At the time of Vegetius the turma was twice as strong; it was arranged in three and also in six ranks.

The dress of the Roman soldier consisted of a robe reaching to the knee, under which he wore the tunic; around it was girt the sword-belt. The breeches, where any were worn, were of leather, and reached to the calf. On the feet he wore half-boots or sandals. The hair was cut short. In winter the soldier wore also a cloak with a hood, with which he could protect the neck and head.

The arms were either offensive or defensive. The light-armed troops were at first the ferentarii, rorarii, and accensi, but in the year 542 a. u. c., the velites (pl. 7, fig. 12) were instituted. The arms of the velites were,

  1. a short sword (pl. 3, fig. 49); it was pointed and very sharp, designed for cut or thrust:
  2. seven small javelins, of which the staff was an inch thick and four feet long; the iron head, nine inches in length, was very slender, and bent with the first throw, so that the enemy could not send it back: sometimes a long thong was fastened to the spear, so that it might be drawn back after projection; but in that case the spear was barbed
  3. (pl. 3, fig. 28): a shield of wood covered with leather; it was round, and three feet in diameter (pl. 7, fig. 13). The head covering was a cap of wolf-skin or cow-hide, in the form of a helmet; metal helmets the velites had not.

The rest of the infantry, the hastati, principes, and triarii, carried a shield; its form was very various, and equally so its style of decoration; but the usual dimensions were four feet, or four feet four inches high, by two feet six inches wide in the middle, so that the bearer could be entirely concealed behind it. They were a rounded oblong, as in pl. 3, fig. 48, or an oval, cut off at top and bottom (fig. 46), or hexagonal (fig. 45), or the same breadth from top to bottom, and concave, as if cut from a hollow cylinder (fig. 47). At first, the shield was of doubled leather only; afterwards of wicker-work, covered with copper-plate; and finally of tough wood, with a covering of leather or metal; or, indeed, cast entirely of metal, and even of gold or silver.

The shield of jointed wood, when covered only with leather, had always an iron rim to turn off the blows; and in the centre a raised piece, the boss, for the better glancing of arrows and stones. The shields were in part painted, sometimes by cohorts uniformly, in part decorated with raised metal ornaments; and were often very costly when belonging to the higher officers. The soldier had further two spears; one of them strong, either round or square, and two and a half inches in diameter, so that it filled the hand; the small one was a javelin, and almost like an arrow; the shaft of each was about six feet long, and the head had branches running back the whole length of the shaft, to strengthen it against blows and fracture. Sometimes, though seldom, the spear had two heads (pl. 3, fig. 48). The helmet was of leather at first, studded with metal, and of the simplest form, with a neck-piece and crest (fig. 36). Afterwards the helmet was made entirely of metal, and often very splendid; it had neck-piece and cheek-pieces, but no visor, like the Greek helmet; the crest was adorned with an erect plume, usually of purple feathers (fig. 37); frequently with a red comb also, a crest of hair, or a horse’s mane. The cuirass was of metal or leather, and reached from the breast to the girdle. The arms, from the shoulder half way to the elbow, were likewise covered with metal plates. The cuirass was set with scales or rings, or interwoven with chains; there were even some very fine ones made entirely of rings, and covering nearly the whole body; generally the form and adornment of the cuirass were very various, and regulated only by the means and taste of him to whom it belonged. Pl. 3 shows various forms of the cuirass; fig. 41 is the cuirass of a Roman emperor, of silver inlaid with gold, and with purple fittings; fig. 40 is the cuirass of a general officer, also richly bedecked; fig. 42 shows the front, and fig. 43 the back of the plate-mail cuirass of a triarius; fig. 44 a scale cuirass of Trajan’s time. The poorer soldiers wore, instead of a cuirass, only a breast-plate, broader above than below. The greaves were like the Grecian, but gave way afterwards to half-boots, which were often set with scales of metal. The sword, which up to the time of Vespasian was carried on the right thigh, where, after its removal to the left side, its place was supplied by a dagger, hung at first from a belt, but afterwards from a baldric; its short blade was broad and strong, very sharp and pointed for cut or thrust; it had a cross-guard, and usually a richly decorated scabbard (pl. 3, fig. 50).

The cavalry armament, at first very simple, was subsequently arranged after the pattern of the Greek cavalry. Their defensive arms were helmet, cuirass, round or oval shield of about three feet diameter, and half-boots, usually set with scales. The offensive arms were, a sword, longer than that of the infantry, and adapted for striking only; a dagger, and a two-pointed lance, which was used, however, only at the first onset. The horses had leather housings, strengthened often about the head and breast with iron scales. Pl. 9, fig. 47, shows an ancient Roman saddle.

The arms of the allies were very various. Pl. 3, figs. 22 to 35 give those of the Samnites and Etruscans; fig. 22 is a Samnite leathern cuirass, with metal neck-band or ring-collar; figs. 31 to 35 are various forms of Etruscan cuirass, as well leathern (figs. 31 and 32) as scaled (fig. 33); cross-plated, as fig. 34, or with plates running up and down, as fig. 35. Of the helmets figs. 23 and 24 are Samnite; these leathern, metal-plated helms are distinguished by having a protection for the face, which with the Romans was always left free. The helm (fig. 23) is evidently the prototype of the knight’s helmet in the middle ages. Figs. 29 and 30 are Etruscan helmets; fig. 29 is a leather cap, with a large crest of plate-iron; fig. 30 resembles the old Grecian helmet. Fig. 26 is the leather cap of the Samnite archer. The Samnite shield (fig. 25) is entirely of wicker-work, covered on both sides with leather, and has the cylindrical form (fig. 47); the Etruscan circular wooden shield, metal plated throughout, was about three feet in diameter. The Samnite bow (fig. 27) is simply cut from curved wood, with hardly any artificial bend.

V. Plate 9: Ancient and Medieval Weapons and Armaments
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The arms of the Gauls and Franks we find on pl. 9. Fig. 1 is a Gallic cuirass, as Julius Cæsar found it; fig. 2, a Gallic shield of wicker-work, covered with leather, and richly painted; fig. 3, the Gallic spear, nearly like the Roman, only shorter ironed, and with a four-edged head; figs. 4 and 5, bows and arrows, like the Greek. The Gallic sword (fig. 6) was either short, with a small cross-guard and broad blade, for the infantry alone, and for striking only; or considerably longer, with a large cross-guard, and blade often three inches broad, for cut and thrust, for the cavalry. Besides the sword, the Gauls carried maces (pl. 9, fig. 7), strong, heavy blocks of wood or iron, set round with points, and on a short handle; a terrible weapon, which neither shield nor helm could easily withstand. The Gallic helmet was cast or hammered from bronze, in rather rude forms, and exhibiting, in almost all cases, the head of some animal as its pattern. Thus the helmet, fig. 10, displays two horns; fig. 11, with the rough, bell-like form, a horse-plume and mane; fig. 9, approximating to the Roman form; a horse-hair comb, with the ears and mane of a horse. A singular form is that of fig. 8, which is set like a war-club, with long, stout, iron points. The Gallic troops had, like the Romans, field badges; but instead of the Roman eagle they carried the Gallic cock (fig. 12), which is at this day their emblem. Pl. 7, fig. 11, shows two armed Gauls. The Prankish helmet is merely a rude cap of ox-hide, with an iron crest (pl. 9, fig. 13).

The sword (fig. 14), like the Roman, short, broad, and pointed, but without cross-guard, was only for stabbing, and the spear with a broad, four-edged head, was provided with a loop of cord or leather. Figs. 15–21 show specimens of German weapons. The shields were of wicker-work and quadrangular, somewhat vaulted, in figs. 15 and 16a, adorned with an inlaid or interwoven pattern, or they were of wood, bound at the edge with metal, as fig. 16b. The spears (figs. 17 and 18) resembled the Roman, but had shorter heads, and the swords were also like the Roman, only considerably longer, as much as three feet in length; figs. 20 and 21 give specimens. The sword was carried on the left thigh by a chain over the shoulder. The Germans were often armed besides with a heavy club of oak wood (fig. 19); helmets they had none, as in war they wore usually for a cloak the skin of some wild beast, the head of which was made to cover their own (pl. 7, figs. 6 and 7). Sometimes they wore also a kind of sleeved cuirass of leather, with breeches and half-boots of the same, but often they marched naked to battle.

The kindred race to the German, the Saxon, afterwards Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Dane, varied little from the Germans in their equipment, wherefore we shall at once insert them here. Pl. 9, figs. 32, 35, 36, and 37, show Anglo-Saxon helmets, which were nothing more than caps of thick leather, studded here and there with iron, and sometimes provided with a narrow visor, to protect the face from sun and rain. The Anglo-Danish helm (fig. 43) is nothing more. The Anglo-Saxon cuirass (figs. 33, 34) is a close-fitting leathern jerkin, of several overlapping layers of leather cut scale-shaped below, and sometimes covering also the shoulder and upper-arm, as fig. 34; the Anglo-Saxon shield (fig. 32) was oblong, three and a half feet high and three feet broad, after the manner of the Roman, of wood, with iron-bound verge, and boss; but the Anglo-Danish (fig. 38) was of wood, plated with leather or metal, after the manner of the old Grecian, carved in artistic form and proportionately small, as for the light troops of the Roman army. The Anglo-Saxon sword (fig. 32) and the Anglo-Danish (fig. 44) resembled entirely the broad, short Roman sword; the spear also (figs. 32, 39, 40) was like theirs in length and strength, but the head was usually barbed, or had tassels of wool, or a kind of cross-guard, which seemed not without use. Instead of the German club, the Anglo-Danes had a mace, as figs. 45 and 46, and battle-axes, either edged on one side and pointed on the other, as fig. 41, or an axe formed on both sides, as fig. 42. The Anglo-Saxon horsemen had saddles, as fig. 48.

The Britons had weapons differing in many respects from those above described. The helmets were at first thick leather caps, adorned at the vertex with feathers (figs. 30 and 31); afterwards the cap was forged or hammered from metal in the same form and provided with a visor, as pl. 3, fig. 38, or with cheek-pieces also, as fig. 39.

Of the decorations of the Roman helmet we find not a trace. The shields were circular, scarcely three feet in diameter, often indeed smaller (pl. 9, fig. 22), of wood strongly plated with metal, the nail heads forming knobs, and the boss projecting into a sharp spike. The sword was very short and pointed, fit only for stabbing (fig. 29). The spear had a rather elongated head, either needle-shaped as fig. 26, or in the shape of a myrtle leaf (fig. 25), but with a projection at the upper part which prevented its penetrating too far. The spear, like fig. 26, was shorter, for throwing, while fig. 25 was long and used only as a pike. War-clubs also were used by the Britons as by the Gauls, sometimes set with points, as fig. 28; sometimes quadrangular, and running out into a point, for blow and thrust, as fig. 27. The battle-axe (figs. 23 and 24) was bladed only on one side, and was wielded with both hands. Pl. 7, fig. 5, is an armed British warrior. The cuirass was of leather with metal scales or rings.

V. Plate 13: Roman and Carthaginian Military Formations
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The order of battle of the Roman legion is shown in pl. 13, fig. 2, for four legions. On the day of battle the Roman legion always took the centre of the line, while the allies and the cavalry covered the flanks, or were held in reserve. The legion was divided into its maniples, and further into three lines, so that always the ten maniples of the hastati made the first line, a a a, the principes the middle, c c c, and the triarii the last line, e e e. Between every two maniples such an interval was left, that the maniple of the second line could march through unimpeded, and the maniples of the rear ranks were opposite to the intervals of the line in front, so that the principes were opposite the intervals of the hastati and the triarii opposite those of the principes. This is the well known quincunx disposition, as mentioned by Polybius at the battle of Zama. Between the hastati and the principes was a considerable interval, b b b, the depth of a maniple, and between the line of the principes and triarii another much greater, d d d, in which war machines were placed. If the first line was compelled to give way, it drew back into the intervals of the next, or the second advanced for reinforcement into the intervals of the first. The light troops, bowmen and slingers (pl. 13, fig. 2 h h h), commenced the attack. The reserve we see stationed in the great legion-interval of the triarii. Were the two foremost lines compelled to retreat upon the triarii, then the army fought in one line, from behind which the light troops, with slings, darts, and arrows, galled the advancing foe. On the flanks were the cavalry, f f, and the allies and confederates, g. At i was the position of the chief officers, the eagles, the tribunes, the first maniple of the triarii, and the élite of the confederate infantry and of the cavalry.

Fig. 6 shows the Carthaginian order of battle with elephants, as it was assumed before a hostile position; a was the position of the enemy; b, the entrenchment before it; c, the infantry, and d, the war elephants, which advanced through the intervals of the infantry; e, are the columns of cavalry.

When an action was victoriously ended, the general lauded the assembled warriors, embraced the leaders, and thanked them and the army (pl. 11, fig. 2). Those who had distinguished themselves by especial bravery in the fight were personally praised and rewarded. The rewards were various. Particularly remarkable among these are the crowns:

  1. The triumphal crown, or crown of victory, of laurel leaves at first and afterwards of gold (pl. 10, figs. 16, 17), which was presented to the general by the confederates and nations, and in the triumph was borne foremost.
  2. The corona obsidionalis (fig. 18), which was given to him who had relieved a besieged city or camp; it was woven of grass from the rescued place, and was a very precious reward, as it was seldom given.
  3. The civic crown (pl. 10, fig. 19) of golden oak leaves, was given in war to a citizen who had saved the life of a fellow citizen, and bore the inscription, “Ob civem servatum;” it was one of foremost distinction; all others were inferior to it, though it was the same whether the life preserved was that of a peasant or a king.
  4. The mural crown, received by him who in the assault first mounted the wall of a besieged city; it was of gold.
  5. Another mural crown (fig. 22), given to him who first scaled the enemy’s entrenchment.
  6. The naval crown (fig. 23) was the reward, after a sea-fight, of those who first boarded an enemy’s ship; some part of a vessel was represented upon it; this, like the mural crown, was of gold.
  7. The myrtle crown (fig. 21) was of myrtle leaves and oval; the general wore it when he marched triumphant into Rome.

On a victory gained, medals were struck also, having the likeness of the general and other emblems, with an inscription touching the facts; figs. 24 and 25 give such medals; the first was struck by the Senate on the victory of Trajan over the Dacians, the second for a victory over the Germans. The Greeks erected trophies upon the field of battle. The Romans also did this, and the trophies were always made of conquered arms, with inscriptions commemorating incidents of the campaign or battle. The generals had such trophies made of marble also, and set up in Rome. Two of these (figs. 26 and 27) have come down to our own time, and Pope Sixtus V. adorned the Capitol with them. Triumphal columns also were erected in memory of great victories, and for sea-fights naval columns, which were adorned with the beaks of captured ships. For the victory of the land forces similar columns were erected, and the most remarkable of these are still in existence, one to Antoninus Pius, and one to the Emperor Trajan after the conquest of the Dacians, both in Rome. Fig. 28 represents the last; it is 118 feet high, and consists of 34 blocks of marble; upon its summit stood a statue of the emperor, 23 feet in height, now replaced by an image of St. Peter; within the column is a winding stair, which is lighted by 43 small openings; on the shaft the victories of Trajan are represented in half relief, 2500 figures, which for the study of ancient costume, manners, customs, and arrangements, are of the greatest value.

V. Plate 6: Ceremonial Processions
Engraver: Henry Winkles
V. Plate 11: Military Ceremonies and Processions of Rome
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The triumph was the greatest honor which the Roman people could extend to its generals. Pl. 11, figs. 3, 4, 5, and pl. 6, fig. 2, give representations of such triumphal processions. The general to whom a triumph was awarded must be at least Prætor, Consul, or Dictator, and a Roman citizen; the victory must have been gained over a nation, not over pirates, robbers, or the like; not less than 5000 of the foe must have fallen, and the enemy must not have been defeated in a foreign province. The general solicited the triumph, and it was either the great triumph, in triumphal chariots, &c., or only the ovation, in which the general went on horseback, that was granted. The solemn procession commenced on the Field of Mars, and went from the Porta Triumphalis over the principal places in the city to the Capitol. The streets were strewn with flowers. Singers and musicians commenced the train; then came the animals destined for sacrifice, richly adorned; then the booty captured from the foe, partly carried (pl. 11, fig. 4), partly on peculiar trophy-cars (fig. 5), and the models and names of captured and conquered cities and people on separate tablets (pl. 6, fig. 2, left), in front of which the conquered generals and other captives were led by the lictors, their fasces bound with laurel. After these came the triumphal chariot (fig. 2), or else perhaps an elephant (pl. 11, fig. 3) with a throne, upon which stood the Triumphator, clad in purple robes and bearing a branch of laurel or an ivory sceptre. The chariot was drawn by four white horses, in later times by elephants, and was richly gilt and inlaid with ivory. The friends and family of the Triumphator and many citizens accompanied the chariot, as also the consuls and senators. The legates and war-tribunes surrounded it on horseback. The victorious army, bedecked with laurel twigs and tokens of honor, closed the procession.

The various punishments with the army were very severe, often indeed cruel. To be passed under the yoke (fig. 1) was a punishment for the whole hostile army when vanquished. The victorious foe had a yoke made of three spears, by striking two upright in the ground and fastening the third across them at top; through this yoke the conquered must march naked, having first laid down their arms; the chiefs were led foremost in order of rank, and then came the whole army.

V. Plate 12: Military Life of the Germanic Tribes
Engraver: Henry Winkles

From the connexion in which the Germans stood with the Romans, some peculiarities in the war customs of the former people may be introduced here. The Germans were a brave and very warlike nation; even the plays of their children were all martial, and the weapon-dance was the youth’s greatest delight. This is shown in pl. 12, fig. 1. The youths either wound in various mazes between outstretched swords and spears, or else ran upon them at full speed and avoided them by dexterous movements of the body. Men and maidens gazed upon the sports, and praised the dexterous and skilful. When the youth attained manhood, he received the right of bearing arms (pl. 12, fig. 2), the elder of the family bestowing upon him sword and lance, while the mother or sister brought the shield. This freedom of arms was bestowed in the assembly of the people, so that all were witnesses of the oath taken by the youth to his father and the nation. Before a battle, an oracle was consulted as to the issue (fig. 3). They betook themselves to the Druid Grove, and the priestess, the druid, or a priest made known to the army the decision of the gods. Only in the last necessity, and when hotly assailed, did the Germans ever engage, unless the druids had prophesied victory. When the combat had once begun, then all took part therein, and a true strife of extermination commenced (fig. 4); even the women seized weapons.

Of the order of battle and the army movements of the Romans, and how the former was by degrees perfected, we give the following outline.

The first order of battle assumed by the Romans was very like the Greek phalanx. Pl. 4, fig. 31, shows such a disposition in one line; BB is the line of the infantry; and here four legions, with very narrow intervals, form a complete phalanx. The cavalry was posted on the flanks at AA, and the light troops form the line CC. This disposition, however, was soon abandoned; in its stead, the manipular disposition was introduced (fig. 32), in which the maniples were established in one line, with intervals between each maniple; the equites formed here the advanced line BB; then came the line of the legion AA, made up of single maniples; and lastly the light troops CC, who, after having made the first onset, retired behind the legion. The intervals meanwhile remained open only until the light troops and cavalry had retired through them; then the files opened, so that each soldier might have free space for combat, and thereby space was made in which the horsemen used to support the wearied foot-soldiers. Such was the order of battle to the time of the consulate. Under the consuls, however, the so-called quincunx was first adopted: fig. 33 shows this. In the first line, AA, stood the hastati; and in their front the light troops, in two ranks, as shown by the shading. Each maniple of sixty men, and twenty light armed, had a front of ten, and the intervals were equal to the fronts. The maniples of the principes stood in like strength and front behind the hastati, but so that each maniple of the second line BB was opposite an interval of the first. At first, the principes occupied the foremost line (whence their name), but in the new disposition it was held better to place the younger people in the first line, and the elder, principes, as the firmer and more experienced, in the second. The third line, CC, was held by the triarii, who were again stationed on the intervals of the second; the rorarii, light armed troops, formed the fourth line DD, mostly bowmen and slingers, who made the first attack, and then retired through the maniple-intervals to their assigned place. The fifth line, EE, was formed by the accensi, or troops who were posted as a reserve, and from whom the maniples of the foremost lines were recruited. Regulus improved on this disposition of the quincunx, by increasing the depth of the maniples one third, and giving the legion, instead of fifteen maniples front, only ten (pl. 4, fig. 34). The light armed troops now formed a complete line, AA; the maniples of the hastati the line BB; of the principes the line CC; and of the triarii the line DD.

Later this disposition by maniples was abandoned, and that by cohorts was introduced, every two maniples of the same line being united to form a cohort. Fig. 35 shows this disposition: AA are the five cohorts of the principes; the plan of placing the hastati on the first line being now given up, and their cohorts forming the second line BB, stationed on the intervals of the first line; the third continuous line CC was made by the light troops, who so established themselves after their first onset; and the fourth line, DD, was held by the triarii. At this time great value began to be placed upon projectile weapons, and the heavy armed received, in addition to their former equipment, five darts loaded with lead.

At the time of the civil wars the distinction between hastati, principes, and triarii ceased, and Cæsar formed legions of ten mixed cohorts of four to five hundred men, which he so placed (fig. 36) that the first line contained four cohorts, and each of the others three. The depth of the cohort, at this time, was ten files. The intervals of the third line were such, that the cohorts of its right and left flanks were exactly in rear of the corresponding cohorts of the first line, while the centre cohort exactly covered that of the second line, and the interval between the second and third was greater than that between the first and second lines. Under Augustus, however, another order of battle was adopted (fig. 37), the third line being done away with, and the cohorts receiving at the same time a different division. The first consisted of 1,105 foot and 132 horse, and carried the eagle of the legion as well as the image of the emperor; the remaining cohorts consisted of only 555 foot and 66 horse. The first formed, in two divisions, the right wing, and then came the four others, of which the central cohort (3) and the flank cohort (5) were composed of the best men. The five following cohorts made the second line; and of these also the flank and centre cohorts (6, 8, and 10) were of picked men. The intervals between the cohorts had only half the breadth of their fronts. The princeps of the legion was primipil, and commanded the four centuries of the first half of the first cohort; the second princeps of the first cohort commanded two centuries of the second half of that cohort. The first and second hastati had each 150 men of the second half of the first cohort, and the first triarius commanded the fifth century of the first half of the first cohort. The centuries had, besides this, particular centurions; and there were decurions over every ten men (contubernium).

Under Trajan the order of battle was again altered, and assumed the disposition shown in pl. 4, fig. 38, which represents the order of battle of Arrian against the Alani. The archers stood upon two hills on the flanks, and shot over the heads of the heavy armed cohorts in front of them. The legion stood eight files deep, in close order, i. e. three feet to a file; in the four first ranks, a a, were those who were armed with light lances; in the four others, b b, those armed with long lances. Afterwards a ninth rank, c c, was added, consisting of Nomadian, Cyrenean, and other archers; whereupon, after the commencement of the action, the first-named archers also united in a rank, d d, in rear of all, in order to shoot over the heads of the legion. The station for the war-machines is in the line e e, behind the united order of battle; and the cavalry collected in eight masses, four of which were stationed at f f, in rear of the archers, and the others on the two flanks. Were the foe routed, the legion opened and permitted the cavalry, f f, to pass through in pursuit.

Castrametation also is a part of tactics, and pl. 13, fig. 1, represents a great Roman camp according to Polybius. The Roman camp had the form of a square, and so soon as the place of encampment was designated, a standard was set up at the best and most open spot, and on each of the four sides of this a line of 100 feet was staked off. The square so formed. A, was the prætorium, and contained the prætor’s tent. In front of this, and on the side most convenient to water and forage, the legions were encamped. As now each legion had six tribunes, and each consul commanded two legions, there were twelve tribunes under each; the tents of the tribunes were set up in one line D D, parallel with the front of the prætorium and occupying each 59 feet of front, their openings towards the legion; the intervals were so arranged that the breadth of the tribunes’ encampment was equal to the front of the legion’s; 100 feet in front of and parallel to this line of tents began the camp of the legions; the street thus formed was called the main street. The line of the front side of the tribunes’ tents we call the front line. Perpendicular to the front line in the centre a street of 50 feet wide was laid off, on each side of which, at M M, the legion cavalry were encamped. To each turma was allowed a space 100 feet square, and between the ten turmæ a second street of 50 feet in width, the quintana T, parallel to the main street, ran across the entire camp. Behind the cavalry, at O O, the triarii were encamped, having a space 100 feet broad and 50 feet deep; then came on each side a street, and at P P the camping ground of the principes 100 feet square; then that of the hastati, Q Q, of the same size; then a street again on each side, and next this, at R R, the camp of the allied cavalry, 100 feet long and 133\(\frac{1}{2}\) feet deep, and behind these, at S S, the allied infantry were encamped having 100 feet of breadth and 200 of depth. Thus is the breadth of the whole encampment determined at 1617 feet. At the upper part of the camp, next the prætorium, was on each side a market-place, upon which, at C, stood the tents of the two legates, and at B the quæstorium. At N also the market was sometimes established. The leaders of the confederates found place at E E. The elite and the veteran troops had the honor of a separate encampment in the vicinity of the prætorium apart from the rest of the legion: the cavalry of the élite at G, their infantry at J; the cavalry of the veterans at F, and their infantry at H. The troops of the reserve were placed above the prætorium, their cavalry at K, their infantry at L. Entirely around the whole encampment ran the camp street, A A, of 200 feet in width, and then came the entrenchment, in front of which was a ditch to secure the camp from a sudden assault. The camp had four gates, of which that opposite the front of the prætorium, the porta prætoriana, X a, was for the prætors; the one on the opposite side from this, the porta decumana, X b, for the chief officers; while that on the left, X c, the porta principalis sinistra, and on the right, X d, the porta principalis dextra, were for the imperator.

According to Polybius the Romans used two principal orders of marches: the forward march (pl. 4, fig. 39), and the flank march (fig. 40). The forward march was always in one column, because battle was given usually only near the encampment, so that the marching out was from only one point. First came the cavalry (pl. 4, fig. 39 A), then the legions in succession ready for battle with their baggage B, and in the rear again cavalry C, closing the march. If an attack was expected on the route, then the baggage was transferred to the rear of the column in front of the closing cavalry, to which in that case an infantry legion was united. The front of the column was, at the time of the manipular disposition, only one maniple; in the disposition by cohorts, one cohort. The second order of march (fig. 40) was the flank march. The legion formed in the quincunx order; the velites at A (the unshaded squares in our figure); the hastati at B, the principes at C, and the triarii at D, took the baggage in the centre, in the intervals of the lines B, C, D, while the velites covered the intervals, then faced to the right or left, and marched. Arrived upon the field of battle the legion faced again to the left or right, according to their position, so as to front the enemy, and drew out from the baggage in the direction of the dotted lines in the drawing, at first direct to the front, afterwards bringing forward one or the other shoulder, on to the assigned position, in the quincunx order of battle.

When the legion had marched in the order represented by fig. 39, and it was desired to assume again the triple order, the following manœuvre was employed. Suppose the march to have been by maniples, as shown in fig. 41, then the first maniple of the triarii, as soon as they arrived on the alignment of the triarii, faced to the right and moved to the right flank; the same with the principes and hastati, and then with the other maniples in succession, as each came upon its proper alignment in the march by column. Then the proper intervals of the quincunx order were assumed in these alignments. In the disposition by cohorts the manœuvre shown by fig. 42 was used. The column of cohorts halted; the first, second, third, fifth, sixth, eighth, and ninth faced to the right, and took their positions and intervals in order of battle; while the fourth, seventh, and tenth, so soon as they were uncovered by the others, were by the command “march” moved forward on to their proper alignment. We will give here one other case, that, namely, where the column of route by the first order, attacked in front, must establish itself in order of battle. This manœuvre, which Metellus practised against Jugurtha, by whom he was attacked on the march, is represented in fig. 43. The even numbered maniples of the hastati, principes, and triarii marched in the column behind each other. The march had been to the left, and the left flank therefore was in front; the attack was made on the right. In forming into line of battle, all the maniples of the hastati and principes faced to the right, and moved by a flank until they touched their proper alignment, when they came into line by bringing forward the left shoulder or by a wheel, and assumed their proper intervals. The triarii meanwhile marched straight forward until each maniple reached its position, when they wheeled into line. Finally, we must mention an order of march, namely the quadrangular, which Marius assumed when he had victoriously repulsed, though only with the greatest difficulty, the attacks directed by Jugurtha upon various sides of his column of route. He feared a speedy repetition of the attacks, for he knew the Numidian warfare, and resolved to prepare for them. Pl. 4, fig. 44, shows the order of march chosen by Marius, and the attack which, in truth, shortly followed from Jugurtha. The Roman general marched with his army in order of battle. The line b b was formed by two Roman legions with a front of 24 men reckoned along the line b c, a length of 2880 feet; at the side of these legions marched Sylla with 44 turmæ of cavalry, a a, on a length of 2610 feet. To the left, beside the legions, marched Manlius with the slingers, archers, and some cohorts of the allies, c c, which to correspond, formed also two legions, or were made up to that complement by the allies. The two lines b c and b c were formed by the remaining cohorts of the allies which marched with the full front. At the head of the whole order of march was Marius himself, with the third part of the auxiliary cavalry, d d. After the march had been continued in this manner for four days, scouts came suddenly from all sides announcing the attack of the Numidians. Sylla was first assailed by the Mauritanian cavalry, A; and meanwhile Bocchus with his infantry, C, fell upon the rear of the Romans; and Jugurtha with his Numidian cavalry, B, kept Marius employed. As soon as Jugurtha had intelligence of the attack of Bocchus, he turned with part of his troops. A, upon the legions, and endeavored to spread the report that Marius had fallen; while the Numidian infantry, at A A, essayed an attack upon the archers, at c c. By these numerous attacks the Romans were shaken certainly, but when Sylla, having put the Mauritanian cavalry to flight, fell upon Bocchus in flank, overthrew him, and then turned upon Jugurtha, whom Marius had also taken in flank, the flight of the Numidians became general, and the victory was won. From this time forward this order of march came much in vogue with the Romans, and the quadrangles of Crassus and Antony are renowned in military history.

An instance in which from a simple order of battle, the quadrangular was formed, is presented by the manœuvre of Julius Cæsar near Ruspina, where he had put himself in march with 30 cohorts and 400 horse to obtain provisions, but at 3000 paces from his camp was attacked by the Numidians under Labienus and the Pacidi. Pl. 4, fig. 45, shows this manœuvre. As soon as the foe came on, Cæsar formed his 30 cohorts in a long line a a, on whose flanks he posted the cavalry. Directly, however, the hostile cavalry so extended itself as to outflank Cæsar’s line on both sides, and in connexion with the infantry, after Cæsar’s cavalry was doubled up and thrown back upon his foot, to entirely inclose the whole army in the oblong dotted line, endeavoring to overwhelm them. Cæsar now caused all the even cohorts to make the half-face, and the even and odd alike to draw out 30 paces from the first line of battle, while the two 15th cohorts made a wheel on a fixed centre pivot. The fifteen cohorts on the left then marched to the left, those on the right to the right, and formed a junction, thus making two quadrangles, with which Cæsar broke through the Numidian cavalry, and took a new position at b and b. The repulsed cavalry formed the extremes of these quadrangles on the right and left flank. After thus forming these quadrangles, which mutually protected each other and divided the Numidian force, Cæsar devised how to unite them both and commence the retreat to his camp. For this, he by degrees drew back both quadrangles upon a new line of battle, and then caused them, approaching each other in c c, to unite into a single quadrangle with which he retired to his camp.

The Romans had eight modes of attack, seven of which Vegetius imparts to us. Fig. 46 shows the first, where the whole army attacks in line, the infantry in the centre, the turmæ of cavalry on the flanks at A A. By the second mode (fig. 47), the left wing, with its cavalry A, preserves such a distance from the right wing of the enemy as to be out of reach of his projectiles, while the right wing, with its cavalry A, advances in echelon from the right and strives to drive him back or outflank him. The third method is in all respects like the second, save that the attack is directed against the left wing of the foe. The fourth mode (fig. 48a) was thus: the direct order of battle was maintained until within 150 paces of the enemy; then the centre halted, and both wings advanced rapidly upon the foe to overthrow his flanks. As an example of the fourth and fifth methods, the action at Elinga, between Scipio and Hasdrubal, may be given (fig. 50). On the day of the fight, Scipio beat up the advanced posts of the Carthaginians with his cavalry and light troops, while he placed his army in order of battle, thus: the auxiliaries in the centre A, but the Roman legions forming the wings B B, so that they were opposite Hasdrubal’s Spanish auxiliaries, who were on the flanks of his direct line of battle C. After the light troops had fought for some time with tolerable success, Scipio caused them to retire through the intervals of the maniples and to take post behind the wings, the light troops in the first line, the cavalry in the second, and he then advanced upon the foe. When the army was yet about a stadium (125 paces) distant from the line of the enemy, the centre was ordered to step short, while Scipio with the right wing and J. Silanus with the left advanced in echelon by the centre from the flanks of each wing, upon the two extremities of the hostile line, the cavalry at the same time advancing from the cover of the flanks B B and attacking the cavalry of Hasdrubal D D. Both flanks of Hasdrubal’s line were broken, and his army would have been destroyed had not a violent storm of wind and rain forced both armies back to their camps.

The sixth mode of attack is nearly related to the second, yet the explanation of it by Vegetius is so obscure that it permits two different representations. According to the first (pl. 4, fig. 48b) the army advances in the direct order, and at the distance of a stadium (125 paces) from the foe is halted, when the right wing attacks the hostile left in the second method, while the centre and left wing retire in echelon from the right, until the whole army forms an oblique line to the enemy, while the reserve at A forms a square. The explanation which Vegetius adds in this case, however, that the army is brought thereby into the form of an I, has caused the second representation (fig. 49, right). By this the whole army advances in column of maniples upon the left flank of the enemy, the cavalry A draws out to the right against the hostile cavalry, and the maniples then face to the left and march until they have formed the echelon A A, when they face again to the front and advance in this oblique formation upon the foe, as shown at B B, in order thus to roll him up.

The seventh mode of attack is either of the preceding modes when one flank is supported upon a fixed point, as a hill, a river, or the like. An eighth mode was that which determined the battle of Cannae, where Hannibal attacked with the centre and threw back his flanks. The Romans had strengthened their army to eight legions of 5000 foot and 300 horse each, which under Æmilius Paulus and Terentius Varro stood at Cannæ opposed to Hannibal, who supported his camp, and the left flank of his line of battle on the river Aufidus, and divided their army into two camps. On the day when Varro had the command, he gave the signal for combat, and the Roman army took such an order of battle that on the left wing at A was the allied cavalry k k, and beside them the allied infantry under Varro. The disposition of the right wing, under Æmilius, was similar, the cavalry being at i i; the proconsuls Marcus and Cneius formed the centre. The army was disposed in four lines, the triarii at a d, the principes at b e, and the hastati at c f, while the light armed and slingers formed the advanced line g h. The maniples of the triarii were largely strengthened, and the whole army, with the auxiliaries, numbered 80,000 foot and nearly 6000 horse. Hannibal posted his Balearic slingers and other light troops in the line q q before his army; on the river he posted the Iberian and Gallic cavalry p m and m m, opposite the Romans; next these the Iberian, Gallic, and other infantry l l; then came the Libyan, and finally the Numidian cavalry at n n u. The Gauls and Iberians were intermingled by maniples, first a troop of Gauls, then a troop of Iberians. Hasdrubal led the left wing, Hanno the right, and Hannibal the centre. To the attack Hannibal advanced the eighth central syntagma of Gauls and Iberians, and supported them by twenty-four syntagmata on each side, advanced in echelon by three divisions, so that the whole line of battle was curved forward at the centre. The light troops now made as usual the first attack, in which fortune was doubtful, but then commenced the charge of cavalry, which, as the masses on both sides were hemmed in by the river and by the infantry so that they could not extend, was terrible, and terminated in the total destruction of the Romans at this point. Now the light troops retired and the main battle engaged; here the Romans were at first victors and drove back the advanced syntagmata of Hannibal, but as these retained their perfect order, the salient curve at o became at last re-entering, forming a concave into which the Romans pressed with a boar’s-head (see pl. 13, fig. 4), which Hannibal inclosed with a hollow wedge and oppressed, while Hasdrubal, who had beaten and put to flight the Roman cavalry, charged it in the rear. Meanwhile Æmilius had fallen, the Romans had lost courage, and as now Hanno returned from pursuit, the victory of Hannibal was decided, and the greater part of the Roman army destroyed.

Under the Emperor Augustus and his successors a standing army was introduced, and the whole system of war changed.

Warfare of the Middle Ages

The continual wars of the Romans with the nations dwelling north from them, and their conquests in all the other parts of Europe, had served to civilize the people with whom they came in contact, and thus, when the monstrous Roman empire, from the weakness of its rulers and of its institutions, fell to pieces, the other nations of Europe had already received the seeds of a culture which developed itself with giant strides so soon as they established themselves in fixed settlements and became habituated to permanent residences. Thus far we have had to mention the other nations of Europe only as they waged war with the Romans, or as allies aided them in their warfare; from this time forth we have to consider these nations as possessing each a peculiar military system of its own, which was soon destined to hold the Roman in check, and to experience in itself the effects of that continual elevation in culture of which it was itself the cause. We must follow, through a succession of centuries, the principal stages in the formation of the Italian and German military systems, in order to deduce from the same our present science of war, in its incontestably highly perfected condition.

With the permanent establishment of the German people in fixed localities came naturally a change of their internal relations and circumstances. Before, the whole race had a common interest, every free man was born a soldier, and his calling was to fight the enemies of his people. Now, this was all changed, and the question soon arose, whether the war commenced was really a war of race and nation, or if only some one of those who had contrived to attain a certain supremacy, had begun the feud for his own personal objects. In the first case, war service became an undeniable duty, but in the second was merely free choice or the lust of gain. For these national wars arose the army-bann, a war service founded upon real property, for discharge of which ownership of the soil was the pay, proof in other words that pay was not needed, or that, by the lien on the soil, it had been received once for all.

This war duty was naturally in the highest degree troublesome, not for the vassals alone, but the leader received thereby great numbers of people utterly unfit for real service, so that the necessity arose for having, besides the army proper, a number of men trained to war, who should not only be ready themselves in all cases, but be fitted to instruct and discipline the army-bann if called out. At all times the exactor of war service cared less for the person by whom it was rendered than for the actual performance of the duty; and thus it soon became the custom to accept a substitute, or an equivalent in money, with which an agreement was then made with some war-loving leaders for the enlistment of whole parties. In later times, free men who found themselves in destitute circumstances, or were in some manner oppressed, entered into a kind of vassalage with the powerful, and gave up their freedom, and even a portion of property, for the sake of protection and to be freed for ever from war service. Others engaged themselves, in consideration of various privileges and advantages, and became feudatories. Thus many free men elevated themselves so much above their fellows, that they became masters and formed an especial class of their own, the war nobility. But even among these war nobles no equality reigned, for here also was a higher class, upon whom the lower were to a certain degree dependent, and thus arose the feudal system, in which the holding of a fee imposed the duty of war service on the lord, just as formerly the possession of real estate had imposed the army-bann service. As, however, the number of feuds diminished with their increased extent, so the number of soldiers became naturally smaller, and instead of foot the greater proportion were horsemen or knights. The fee service was now the principal, and the war of the empire affected the vassal only mediately, through his liege lord. The general obligation to service remained properly the same, but much modified, according as the subject was a liege-lord, or possessed a freehold, a feehold, a sockage, or no estate at all, according as he was mediately or immediately dependent on the empire; and even here all sorts of modifications were introduced by contract and relation. The feudal system had the effect withal of removing the mass of the people from war service and creating a warrior class. The number of soldiers, however, was small, the duration of service short, and thus wars could not become either national struggles or wars of conquest, but were confined really to short feuds. The feudatories must, in general, serve the empire six weeks at their own cost, or, on the coronation processions of the newly-appointed kings to Rome, until he was crowned by the pope. Many sought to free themselves from this service, and sent substitutes, or money to procure such. Thus arose the paid service.

All mercenaries were taken merely for the time of actual war, and dis-banded so soon as that was ended; in the Byzantine kingdom alone do we find traces of a standing army. With respect to the maintenance of the troops, in the times preceding the reign of the Emperor Maximilian, all accurate information is wanting. When a somewhat regular allowance found place, one and a half pounds of bread, a portion of wine, and meat three times a week, were given, besides cheese, beans, and other pulse, alternately.

V. Plate 14: Medieval War Scenes
Engraver: Henry Winkles

In the earliest times, the commander-in-chief was chosen in the field by the elders of the people, in free election; and after the choice had been announced to and accepted by him, he was clad in all the insignia of his rank, and elevated upon a shield in the presence of the people, whose weal he was to defend, and of the army, whose chief he was to be (pl. 14, fig. 2). Afterwards, when, instead of the army-bann, the host was composed of lords with their vassals, the feudal superior was commander-in-chief, and his vassals, the great feudatories, became his subordinates and council of war; the officers, if we may admit such a position here, were chosen by each subordinate for himself; and there were, of course, as many of them as there were separate followings among the vassalage of each, so that no such thing as a regular organization of the army was to be thought of. Where there were mercenaries, a captain had the immediate command, and designated those who should command under him. That under such circumstances no particular tactic or art of war was practicable, is evident enough. Of great strategic plans for a whole campaign, of dividing or cutting off, etc., of whole corps, of skilful marches, we find in the military history of the middle ages scarcely any trace. In general the two parties assailed each other hotly; the brevity of the fee-service and the expense of war, urging them to bring on at once a great battle, by which the issue was usually decided; and this main action itself was mostly a series of single combats, without plan or order, it being of much less consequence that the commander-in-chief should have especial skill in the art of war, than that he should be looked up to with respect by the army, and that each subordinate should obey him willingly and observe his orders.

In the feudatory force, cavalry was predominant; in that furnished by the cities, infantry; until here also equalization was introduced. Sometimes the cavalry fought entirely distinct, usually on the flanks; sometimes dispersed in masses among the infantry, or with single foot-soldiers between the horsemen to support them; or the archers brought on the conflict, which the cavalry then continued. The infantry were usually disposed (as in fig. 3) in deep order, and carried long spears, with which they killed the horses, and so put the riders hors-de-combat.

Prisoners were, in general, harshly treated; not unfrequently, indeed, put to death. A very common practice was that of decimation (pl. 14, fig. 1), which was applied also in case of mutiny in the army. The whole number of condemned were placed in a row, and then every tenth man counted off and immediately executed, while the remainder were permitted to go free, or with only some light punishment.

Ere we proceed to the time when, under the Emperor Maximilian, the German army received, from the renowned Captain George of Frondsberg, a regular organization, we will give some details respecting the arms and military dress of that period.

V. Plate 15: Weapons of the Germans, Normans, Anglo-Saxons, and Danes
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The most ancient weapons of the Germans, Normans, Anglo-Saxons, and Danes, we have described already in pages 19, 20. The art of the armorer was everywhere diffused in the middle-ages, and stood in high repute; next to peltry, arms were up to the end of the twelfth century the chief article of barter for the wares of India. Among the Goths in Southern France, we find mentioned, in the fifth century, shields inlaid with gold and silver; and the swords of the Vandals were also inlaid with gold. Pl. 15, fig. 63, shows a dagger which Duke Rudolph of Swabia wore, when, in 1080, he fought at Merseburg, against King Henry IV., which belongs, therefore, to the last halt of the eleventh century, if not still earlier. This dagger, the richly decorated gold hilt of which displays a skill in carving remarkable for that age, gives evidence also of the perfection of the armorer’s art at that period. In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, however, this art attained in Germany, but especially in Northern Italy, a very high degree of excellence; and we have admirable suits of armor of that age, in which the inlaid work is principally arabesque and leaf-work, or escutcheons. Here also we will follow the division of weapons into those of offence and defence, and describe them as they are represented in plates 15 and 16.

The bow proper (pl. 15, figs. 1 and 2) held its repute longest among the Scandinavians and Normans; in Germany it was almost entirely superseded, as early as the twelfth century, by the crossbow, which the old balista suggested.

The Genoese were the first who constructed the balista, known in antiquity on so small a scale that it could be handled by one man. Richard I. introduced it into England, and in the third crusade it was already a common weapon. The crossbow represented in our plate (fig. 3) shows the earliest form of this arm; the wooden stock is three feet three inches long, one and three-quarter inches broad in the widest place, and five and three-quarter inches thick in the thickest. The bow is of steel, two feet long, and in the broadest part nearly four inches wide; the whole weapon weighs fifteen pounds. The string was usually double, made of gut, twisted and wound with silk or thread; each man had two such strings. At the upper end of the stock was a piece of curved iron, in which the bolt or arrow was laid, and then held behind by a catch. For taking aim, there was a small back-sight, which was brought in a line with the notch on the arrow. When the bow was bent, the string was held back by a claw, which, being pushed up by the trigger, let the string fly in firing. Afterwards, a particular kind of lock, similar to our musket-locks, was contrived, to make the discharge easier. The crossbow was bent by means of a windlass which each man carried with him, and which was constructed in various ways. Sometimes it consisted merely of several wheels, sometimes of a kind of pulley; frequently it was merely a double lever. At first, only arrows like those shot from the bow proper (pl. 15, figs. 4, 5, 6) were shot from the crossbow, but afterwards, when the steel bow had been still more strengthened, heavy bolts (fig. 13); and the effect was so powerful, that even at considerable distances such bolts penetrated light cuirasses, shields, and helmets, and completely transfixed the unarmed. The arrows were feathered at the upper end, for greater steadiness of flight, as the figures show; frequently they, as well as the bolts, were split, and a strip of leather or parchment inserted. The heads of the arrows were of various forms (figs. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12). They are found single, double, and triple-pointed, provided usually with one, often with two and three pairs of sharpened barbs. Sometimes, when objects were to be set on fire, a ball of pitch, tow, and other combustibles, was fastened close behind the head (fig. 6), and lighted just as the arrow was discharged. Such fire-arrows, carrying the Greek-fire, were very much used. For the crossbow heavy bolts were used (fig. 13), pointed also often with several points, and formidable even from their weight alone.

The dress of the crossbow-man consisted usually of a cuirass, which was woven of wire, and hung low enough to cover the legs. The head was protected by a close-fitting cap of tin plate, which passed afterwards into the form of a kind of helmet. The poorer archers wore only a breastplate or leather jerkin, set here and there with pieces of tin plate. In such cases the archers were protected by shield-formed wicker hurdles, of the height of a man, which were carried by men appointed for the purpose, and set up in the ground before them. A short sword or battle-axe also was usually carried by the archers.

The spear or lance was the most ancient weapon of the Germans, and this arm has been maintained in honor. From the formation of the feudal nobility, the lance was the chief weapon of the knightly equipment. The staff of this knightly lance, which differed widely from the common spear, and was much heavier, was of oak, fir, linden, sycamore, or ash wood, often carved and richly decorated; and where it was clamped under the arm, was hollowed out (pl. 15, fig. 48). The head for war use was rather strong and heavy than sharp; sometimes twelve to fourteen inches long and eight inches broad. Below the head was fastened a pennon, partly as insignia, partly to frighten the enemy’s horse. In later times, the knight-banneret bore his banner on the lance. Over the hollow for the arm an iron guard was sometimes fastened, and a funnel-shaped cap of tin plate, which, when the lance was laid in rest, protected the breast and arm. At tournaments and tiltings the lances had no heads, but only, as in fig. 48, a kind of knob with three short points, serving merely to prevent the lance from slipping when it struck the mail plate.

Besides the knightly lance, however, we must mention the spear or pike, the main weapon of the footman; from which, too, the hunting-spear (fig. 19) must be distinguished, the head of which was leaf-shaped and ornamented, and decorated usually with a pair of woollen tassels. The war-spear had a long and not too heavy shaft of tough wood, and a head which was heavy, and of the most various forms. In the earliest times, only a simple head was used, or at most a barb was added; but in the later middle ages the most various, and often the strangest forms made their appearance (figs. 20–47). At first a hook only was added to the head, which could be fixed in the meshes of the hauberk, and the foe thus pulled down; but afterwards the spear was so contrived as to afford a double weapon. The spear had often two, three, or even more points, as figs. 31, 35, 43–47, of which some were thrust forward by pressure of a spring. There were lances of which the head part was two or three feet long. Often, too, an axe, or other weapon, was united with the spear. Such an arm was called a bisarm or gisarm, and consisted of a point, with a curved blade for striking (figs. 20, 21, 23–28 and 47), or of one straightforward point, and several others projecting at the sides (figs. 24, 30, 31, 32, 42, 45). As the knightly lance disappeared, the spear also passed, in the fourteenth century, into the partisan and halberd, and the officers of infantry carried these even to modern times. The shaft of the partisan (pl. 15, figs. 32, 49, and 50, a b) was six to eight feet long, shod with iron; the head consisted of a broad two-edged blade, dagger-shaped, beneath which was a crescent-shaped axe for striking, and on the opposite side a point or hook.

A weapon of great importance in the middle ages was the sword, the form of which had changed very little among the Germans since the earliest times. The sword was then, that is to say the state sword, very short and very broad, with a very short hilt. There belong, for example, the sword of Childerick (see Division III., History, pl. 22, fig. 33), and Charles the Great’s sword (pl. 15, fig. 59), the lower end of which is here wanting. The later forms of the knight’s sword are shown in figs. 51, 52, 53, and 56. The hilt was very long, because, in consequence of the great weight of these swords, it was necessary to use both hands in wielding them; and the pommel very heavy, not, however, to serve as a counterbalance to the blade, for it was rather desired to make the sword heaviest at the point for the greater momentum (fig. 56), but for beauty’s sake only, and to afford a firmer hold. The cross-shaped guard, often richly and tastefully adorned, served at once for protection and for ornament. The blade was either rounded at the point or cut off in a very obtuse angle, and was at the same time very long; thus, for example, the blade of the sword (fig. 56) which was worn by John George I. of Saxony is 5 feet long, and of that (fig. 57) which Henry the Pious once bore, 6 feet. In old accounts swords of even 11 feet in length are spoken of, but these were only carried in processions. Besides the great German sword, the French had some, somewhat smaller indeed, but ending in a sharp point, so as to be used for thrusting. Such swords “à l’estoc,” which the Germans called rapiers (panzerstecher), are shown in figs. 58 and 62; strictly speaking, fig. 51 belongs here also. In the fifteenth century we find swords whose edge is straight on one side but waved on the other, or with the whole blade flame-shaped (figs. 54 and 55). The same were used very seldom except by the Swiss, or on occasions of ceremony. In addition to the great sword the knights often carried a small one at the saddle-bow.

From the Saracens the Germans got the sword with a curved blade, endeavoring to adapt the sickle-formed edge of the Turkish scymetar to the straight blade of the German sword. Fig. 60a gives such a sickle-shaped sword, having its edge on the side where the back would be in a common sword, so that with these scymetars the wielder did not strike forward but drew them towards him as in reaping. A rather clumsy weapon of this kind the Bohemians used in the Hussite wars, and called it dusseg or dussac (pl. 15, fig. 60b); it seems, however, to come nearer a crooked dagger.

The sword was carried at the left side in a belt, yet we find also the old Normans carrying it on the right side without a belt, attached by two studs to the cuirass. On the blade, upon which was often an inscription, and on the hilt of the sword great expense was bestowed (figs. 51 and 58.) Fig. 58 is the so-called electoral sword from the armory at Dresden; the hilt is of silver chased with gold. Still later the old sword-form passed into the rapier-form (fig. 61), and the blade became shorter than before. Along with the sword was also used the dagger, which hung at the right side to a chain, or by a separate stud on the cuirass. Not until later did the blade of the dagger become short, three-edged, and pointed, as in fig. 63. We have spoken of this dagger already, and have only to remark here that the hilt is of ivory and the blade gilded. An uncommon form of dagger, used by the Bohemians, is the sickle (fig. 64). The dagger was used for quicker defence at arm’s length and in single combats, when the combatants were overthrown, to continue the fight; often also to give the fallen enemy a death-thrust in the throat or back, whence in old chronicles we find the dagger called also “misericorde” (mercy). The Normans, who wore the sword on the right side, carried the dagger on the left. The ancient Saxons had also a dagger-like weapon, which was called sahs or sax, and from which some derive the name of Sassens or Saxons.

Other kinds of offensive weapons are the battle-axe, mace (morgenstern), &c. The earliest battle-axes, for they go back to times when the use of iron was unknown, were generally of flint, sharpened either by striking, or by grinding in some way not now understood, and with a hole worked out for the handle. Figs. 14–18 are such stone battle-axes. Later the stone was exchanged for iron; and a mallet, which was also hurled, was added to the weapons. In the 13th century this weapon had already become smaller (fig. 69, left side), and was used by the knights, being carried at the saddle-bow or in the belt. Nearly equal to the mallet was the battle-axe, which, at the time of the migrations, had become a common weapon among the Germans, as we have before mentioned in treating of the warfare of antiquity (page 20). Later it was used principally by the Danes, wherefore it was called also the Danish axe (pl. 15, fig. 65.) To give the blow more momentum the handle was often of iron; fig. 66 shows such an axe, which has also several points. An elegant weapon of this kind is the battle-axe of the Elector John George I. of Saxony (fig. 67), upon the iron handle of which the idolatry of the Jews is represented in half-relief. The handle was hollow, and formed the sheath for the fine dagger-blade shown in our engraving, which was itself ornamented with etchings.

To the death clubs belongs the pointed flail (fig. 69, right hand), which was carried chiefly in the Hussite and peasant wars; the Swiss also used it at Morgarten and Murten, as fig. 70 shows. But at that time the morgenstern had become the more common weapon, stout wooden or iron clubs, set all over with prickles or hooks, which appear also in the 10th and 11th centuries. The morgenstern, represented in fig. 71, is found in the armory at Dresden, and is of wood, with iron points, &c. Another kind of morgenstern are the clubs (fig. 68), which are small, all of iron, very short, and instead of hooks are set with sharpened knife-corners. These clubs (maces) the knights carried alike in the tournament and the field.

To the earliest of defensive arms belongs the shield; of its most ancient form and material we have spoken already. Among the Anglo-Saxons the shield was oval, of wood, bound with an iron rim, and with an iron point (boss) in the centre; the Franks had it three-cornered, broad above, sharp below, and this continued to be the general form in the middle ages, although now and then it was made more ornamental by indentations in the rim, &c. This shield was also of wood, plated with hammered iron, and when not in use hung by a band over the right shoulder and on the back. Frequently the shield was furnished with strong iron spikes, so that it might be serviceable also for a blow (fig. 77). Such shields were permitted even in the ordeal by combat, but the points must not be more than one foot in length. The infantry had a larger shield (fig. 72) of wood, painted usually with the arms of the liege lord and knight, and bound with an iron rim. To protect the archers the shield was yet larger and curved (fig. 73), in other respects as above described. They ceased to be used in the 15th century; among the Bohemians alone are they found as late as the 16th. Round shields also are frequent, at the time of the crusades especially, when they were adopted from the Saracens. They are usually flat-vaulted and very large (fig. 74), sometimes, however, very small for knights (fig. 76), with a boss and without; of wood plated with iron, often entirely of hammered steel; adorned very frequently with tasteful ornaments, inlaid with gold and silver, or gilded. In state processions they were often entirely of silver or even of gold. One particular kind of Saracenic shield (fig. 75) was high-vaulted and had a boss, but this is seldom seen. The shield was frequently stuffed; always, however, lined with cloth or velvet, and sometimes fringed (figs. 72, 75, and 76).

V. Plate 16: Armor of the Middle Ages
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Next to the shield the helmet is the oldest defensive arm. It was made of hammered and also of cast iron. The cap, which is the oldest form of the helmet, received afterwards a projection which extended over the nose, but left the eyes and cheeks free. Such helmets appear in the 10th and 11th centuries. The first visor we find in the year 1155, and at the time of the third crusade they had become common. The first visors were immovable, and consisted of cross-bars riveted to the helmet. From the middle of the 13th century the helmet was rounded above, and in the 14th and 15th centuries forms as in pl. 16, figs. 1, 2, and 3, are general. To the upper helm iron plates were added to protect the throat and back of the neck; the visor, however, was very differently shaped and contrived to raise and lower. It consisted either of several small iron bars (fig. 3), or of plates with openings opposite the eyes and mouth only (fig. 2), or of plates cut or pierced like a grate or sieve (fig. 1). Besides these knights’ helmets, however, the simple, close-fitting head-piece, pot, or skull-cap remained in use for the attendants, grooms, footmen, and men-at-arms (figs. 4–7). Even the knights when not expecting immediate combat, yet wishing to be protected, wore such, but of much more elegant forms. Pl. 17, figs. 1–4, and pl. 18, figs. 4, 8, 9, 10, and 11, give various examples of knights’ helmets. As to the decorations of the helmet and the material of which it was made, we find it sometimes of iron and sometimes of steel, or even, for state occasions, of gold and silver. The steel ones were either painted entirely black, or the steel was blued and variously ornamented, engraved, inlaid with gold and silver, striped and studded, or even set with precious stones. Kings wore crowns upon their helmets; counts and barons also often wore the coronets of pearl belonging to their rank upon their helms. In the 13th and 14th centuries horse-tails were worn on the helmet-crest, afterwards plumes of feathers took the place of them. In later years, when heraldic bearings became common, symbols proper to the bearing were often placed upon the helm, as animals, horns, wings, human figures, &c. These decorations became general in the 15th century.

The Germans and their kindred nations received mail-harness from the Romans, whose cuirass in the latter ages had a form widely differing from that first given to it, for the horsemen were completely covered with iron. The different members were so protected, by means of stout, scale-shaped plates of iron, lapped one over another at the edges, that they retained the power of motion. The helmet closed around the face, so that projectiles could penetrate only at those places where openings were left for the eyes and for breathing. Even the horses were equipped in a similar manner; these horsemen were called cataphracti. The oldest form of the cuirass is represented in pl. 16, fig. 8, where the scales are secured upon a leathern under-coat. This harness, from the Dresden armory, is said to have belonged to King John Sobiesky of Poland. The form of the helmet is likewise the very oldest of all, that of a round cap fitting over the head-piece of the cuirass, by which the cheeks were protected. The feather-plumes and Maltese cross are doubtless additions of a later time; the feathers, indeed, were most probably added only to give the harness a better appearance when it was set up. In the 10th and 11th centuries the ring-cuirass (hauberk, fig. 16) became common. It consisted of iron rings linked one in another, which were fastened upon a leathern under-coat; among the Normans such cuirasses appear very frequently. At first these hauberks came only to the hips, afterwards they covered the thighs to the knee, where they were met by a similar covering for the leg; according, indeed, to representations in the Bayeux tapestry, there were such mail-suits of a single piece, which were drawn on from below. In the oldest harness of this description the rings were only laid close together, but not interlinked. Upon old monuments we find also woven mail, one, for example, of the year 1100, where the whole looks like basket-work, whence it has been concluded that this mail was braided with strips of leather; yet it might as easily and much more probably be small iron wire sewed upon leather in the horizontal and vertical position alternately. Underneath the cuirass was a quilted woollen jerkin reaching to the knee. The horses also were provided with such ring and scale mail, and carried on the head a plate of iron with a spike projecting from it in front (charfron). The ring and scale mail was gradually displaced by that composed of plates, in which the upper arm, for instance, was covered with a single plate, and the divisions were only at the joints, where still other plates were fitted over these divisions, so as to give the power of motion. At first the upper part of the body was clad in the ring or scale mail, and only the lower part covered with the plate, as shown by the corresponding parts of a knight’s harness in pl. 16, figs. 16 and 17. By the end of the 15th century, however, the plate or iron band armor had become general, although light ring-cuirasses were still worn under the plate harness in the 16th century (figs. 9, 10, and 12). At the same time with their riders, the horses also were provided with mail, which on the head, breast, and hind-quarters consisted of plates, but on the neck of iron bands (fig. 23); frequently, however, the croup and hind-quarters were protected against cuts by separate bands only (pl. 18, fig. 2).

V. Plate 17: Medieval Armor and Tournaments
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Pl. 16, figs. 9, 10, and 11, show mail composed chiefly of iron bands such as was used in and after the fifteenth century, the armor represented being that of the Elector Joachim II., of Brandenburg. Figs. 12, 13, 14, and 15, belong to this kind also. The complete plate-mail arrangement, however, appears in pl. 23, representing the state equipment of Christian I., Elector of Saxony, which is to be found in the Dresden armory. It is of polished steel, and richly inlaid with gold. Here, too, belongs the suit of armor of the Emperor Charles V. (pl. 17, fig. 1), of the Elector John the Steadfast of Saxony (fig. 2), and of the knight (figs. 3 and 4). When the breast-plate was made of a single piece, it became necessary to have a support for the lance when placed in rest, and for this purpose a hook was fixed on the right breast (pl. 16, figs. 9 and 10), or sometimes a short horizontal iron bar, with a curve.

In the armor, especially of later times, great magnificence was displayed. It is found painted black or red, with gold or silver nails and edges; of blued steel, with gold and silver borders and leaf-work (fig. 9); bright polished, with graven or inlaid ornaments, and even adorned with precious stones. Armor of silver entirely, or gilt all over, is frequently mentioned. Where the parts of the armor came in contact with each other, they were lined with leather and colored cloth (figs. 14 and 15). The separate pieces were fastened together by straps or hooks (figs. 12, 13, 14, and 15), and in the same way the greaves, which covered only the fore part of the thigh, the shin-bone, and the knee, were buckled over the hose (figs. 13 and 17). Of especial interest are the ring-shaped pieces which protect the elbow and joint of the arms (figs. 9, 12, 13, 14, and 15).

Particular attention was given to the gauntlets also, as they were to protect the hand and wrist, and yet in no respect interfere with their free motion. The gauntlet proper, therefore, consisted of thick leather only, but all parts which were anywhere exposed to a blow, were protected by larger or smaller strips of iron and steel-plate, sewed on with wire (pl. 16, figs. 18–22). The gauntlets were often engraved or inlaid on the cuffs, and the separate strips ornamented with gilt or silvered edges and studs.

Spurs are a German invention, for the name (sporen) has passed into foreign languages from the German. At first, the spur had but one point; later, since the fourteenth century, this has been supplied by a pointed rowel. The fork which held the wheel was at first straight (pl. 9, fig. 64), afterwards curved (fig. 63). The oldest spurs were very broad, often richly adorned; the rowels had points of an inch and more in length. The golden spur was the mark of a knight; and a nobleman who was not a knight could wear only silver or steel spurs.

The oldest nations rode their horses only on the bare back, yet even among the Visigoths saddles are mentioned. Among the Anglo-Saxons the saddle was only a cushion, with a small seat (figs. 47 and 48). In the eleventh century, the front and rear projections were already considerably higher, as was requisite for the mode of fighting practised by the heavy armed. This is shown by the Norman saddle of the year 1120 (fig. 49). How the form of the saddle afterwards changed is shown in figs. 50–56. Fig. 50 shows a saddle of the middle, fig. 51 one of the end of the twelfth century; fig. 52 one of the thirteenth. To the end of the fourteenth century belong the saddles in figs. 54 and 55; in the commencement of the fifteenth, the form was as in fig. 53, and at the close of the same as in fig. 56. Fig. 60 is a German saddle of the beginning, fig. 61 of the middle of the sixteenth century, and fig. 62 is of the middle of the seventeenth. A state saddle of the fifteenth or sixteenth century is represented in figs. 57, 58, and 59; fig. 58 is the front, fig. 59 the rear view. Both saddle-pads are wrought in iron; the figures and edges gilded; housings and cover are of black velvet, richly embroidered with gold; the stirrups of gilded iron.

The warrior garb of the middle ages had transformed itself, in the course of centuries, from the severe simplicity of the old Germans, until, in the time of the Emperor Maximilian, it reached the extreme of pomp and costliness. Broadcloth, silk, and velvet, were the stuffs from which the garments, often with a superfluity of material, were made; costly embroideries in silk, silver, gold, and pearls, adorned the surcoats at jousts, tournaments, and processions; and the barrett-cap, which it was then the wont to substitute for the helmet, the last being carried by a page in the rear, flaunted with rich plumes of all colors. The helmet, too, which had sometimes a cover of its own, the helm-case of the same color with that in the escutcheon, bore also, where no particular crest was taken for it from the arms, the richest plumes. The squires and pages likewise were clad usually in the colors of their knight, while the men-at-arms were equipped according to their means and taste. A surcoat, usually richly embroidered, was generally worn by the knights over the cuirass; it reached half way to the knee, had short sleeves, and was sometimes open at the breast to show the breast-plate.

V. Plate 18: Military Dignitaries and War Camps
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Pl. 17, figs. 5 and 6, are two groups of foot-soldiers, from the triumphal processions of the Emperor Maximilian, after Albrecht Durer’s wood-cuts; figs. 3 and 4, two groups of knights on foot, completely armed, and wearing the above-mentioned surcoats. In pl. 18, figs. 7, 8, 9, and 10, are four groups of ensign and standard bearers, of different cities and districts of the German empire, on richly adorned horses. It is seen here how the horses, when not equipped for battle, were covered with rich housings. At tournaments, also, such housings were general, and they were then arranged according to the color of the escutcheons, or they held devices and various figures (figs. 8 and 10), or else rich embroidery, as fig. 4. Upon the banners and standards the arms of the cities or districts, or sometimes only devices and mottoes, were embroidered. Among the standards represented here are those of Steiermark and the two Austrias (fig. 10), of Frioul, Andechsum, and Tockenburg (fig. 9), of Kirchberg, Ravenstein, and Waldhausen (fig. 8), and of Saalgaw, Bregenz, and Fischbach (fig. 7), bearing the arms of the cities and districts. Musicians on horseback we find in pl. 17, fig. 10, having cases with them for their instruments.

From the entrance of Charles V. into Bologna, after Lucas Kranach’s woodcuts, figs. 7 and 8 show the Spanish knight with the mallet and the imperial banner-bearer; pl. 18, figs. 1 and 2, the herald of the Golden Fleece and the gold-scattering herald; figs. 3, 4, and 5, the banner bearers of the city of Rome, of the emperor, and of the pope; fig. 6, the banner bearer of Bologna with his suite.

The picture in fig. 11 may serve us as the conclusion of this period in warfare, presenting, as it does, a lively representation of an army as it appeared at the close of the fifteenth century. The marching forth of an army from its camp is here depictured; the general-in-chief with the standard, which flutters gaily in the morning breeze, stands upon a rising ground, surrounded by his leaders and attendants, beside the last tents which yet remain erect, and as the host of knights, squires, and men-at-arms defile before him, kindles them by glowing words to deeds of valor in the coming combat.

In the last decade of the fifteenth century arose that tedious strife between France and Hapsburg. In France the ban and arrière-ban were no more, the German vassals disowned their homage to the Emperor; but France had formed its “compagnies d’ordonnance,” the “hommes d’armes,” a paid standing army, from which came forth her Bayard, La Tremouille, La Police; and Maximilian I., the young hero full of “precious thoughts,” deserted by the nobility of his hereditary states, must, if he would maintain the dignity of World-ruler, be the founder of a new war system. He created the “good Landsknechts,” by assembling the rude burghers and peasants of his Austrian patrimony under his banners, arming them after the Swiss fashion with long spears, halberts, and swords, having them taught to keep rank and file, to wield the lance, and form the “porcupine.” Remarkable is it, that in the very year which saw the defence of the German empire pass from the hands of the nobles into those of the peasants, the year 1487, the last tournament of four nations should have been held at Worms. Ludwig von Rheinach, Christoph von Kammer, Otto von Lichtenstein, and Friedrich Kammerer von Dalberg were the last tourney kings; and after the Countess Palatine had bestowed upon Conrad, knight of Ahelfingen, the prize of victory (pl. 17, fig. 11), the four tourney kings, with the chief victor and one of the nobles of each of the four nations, had their escutcheons set up for show. Thus ended the German knighthood.

The constitution of the German soldiery was at this time very free. No conscription or canton service carried the sons of the German boor or burgher to the standard; they went of their own accord, but they demanded even in the imperial camp, securities for their burgher privileges, and these were promised them by the Emperor. So often, therefore, as a ruler needed an army, he gave to some distinguished warrior a commission as general-in-chief, with the license to raise a regiment of Landsknechts, but at the same time the “statute brief” also, that is, the constitution and the usage by which the prince would hold his soldiery. To the term regiment, however, we must not attach the quantitative idea of our own times, but to “raise a regiment” meant then to call an army together under the written constitution, founding as it were a military empire. As soon as the war chief had his brief, and the place of meeting and muster was appointed, he chose his lieutenant and deputy, and as many officers as he had companies to raise. These were then to “beat about,” all over the country, for recruits, and persuade creditable and effective fellows to the war game. Admission into the ranks of the “good Landsknechts” stood not open indeed to every land-louper, but the candidate must appear well armed and well clad, and thus only people of some means could follow the recruiting drum. When assembled, an imperial or royal muster-chief made his appearance, with war-counsellors and muster-clerks, and every single man was carefully examined in respect to his person, arms, &c. All the best armed, being mostly men of long service, were put on the “first roll,” and received higher pay, and each company of 400 men must have at least 100 of these; the remainder came on the “second roll,” and all received pay from the paymaster. The chief gave his people a stirring speech, had the statute-brief read before them, made them take the oath, and then delivered the standards to the ensigns, admonishing them to lose them only with their lives. Then the different companies came together, the captain cautioned his people, presented to them the lieutenant, clerk, chaplain, and surgeon, whom he had chosen, and now began “in the ring” the choice of sergeants, of sergeants-major, of guides, of commissaries (Fourier), and of corporals, by majority of voices; and in this way the regiment, consisting generally of fifteen to sixteen companies of 400 men, was divided and organized from highest to lowest. The colonel had in his regiment the absolute power of life and death. The provost had the rank of captain, preserved order, and in assaults carried a sword himself. The camp followers, consisting of sutlers, laundresses, and various women, the soldier brats and rabble “who followed the drum,” were under a special commander.

The administration of justice was severe; at its head stood the mayor (Schultheiss), and the sentence was given by a species of jury court, which consisted of twelve judges and the sworn jurors, who were always chosen from the company affected. The sentence was executed as soon as passed. The drill and discipline of these unwieldy landsknecht regiments, which often swelled up from 4,000 to 10,000 men, were suited to the battle-fields of those days. Averse to tactical exercises, the German soldiery of that period knew nothing but to rush upon the foe in open field with levelled lance and halbert, or in close ranks to storm his entrenchments and strong places. Foremost went the “forlorn hope,” chosen usually by lot, and commenced the onslaught; close upon them pressed the “storming party,” in solid square, at the pas-de-charge. The arquebusiers, with their light companies, were in later times attached in separate bodies, as wings, to the flanks of the square or in front and rear. On the outmost sides of the square “the porcupine,” those nearest to the foe, the best equipped men, with long spears, swords, and halberts, formed a “front rank” (“Blatt”), to which followed the three first companies. The middle space was filled up by four companies less perfectly armed, and all having long spears; in the three rear companies there bristled again a forest of spears, next to a rank of swordsmen; and in the last ranks stood the strongest, best-armed people with long spears, usually the double-pay men. Whenever they were about to engage, the army fell upon their knees, sent forth a hymn and prayer, then shook the dust from their feet, and rushed on with levelled spears. Before the first rank rode or marched the general with his chief officers near him, for not until afterwards did the custom arise of placing, “for the sake of the common good,” the officers behind the ranks. In front of the square masses of infantry the single combats of the knights then took place which preceded every action.

Such was the formation, the internal organization, the law usage, and the custom of war of the first regular European infantry, from which by various modifications the infantry of all modern nations has originated.

As to cavalry, the Emperor Charles created—for until his time only individual knights had fought with the armies—whole regiments after the fashion of the French “compagnies d’ordonnance” and “hommes d’armes,” which were raised by any distinguished prince of the empire, with the imperial commission. Noble birth was not required. The choice of captains and officers was left to the field-marshal, for so the general of cavalry was entitled, to distinguish him from the general of infantry. As soon as the cavalry service ceased to be peculiar to the nobles, a regimental organization very similar to that of the landsknechts was introduced.

It was the Emperor Maximilian who first placed the artillery upon a formidable footing, and created the proper artillery corps in the army: but it was long after ere any degree of mobility was given to it, and this was first effected by the Emperor Charles V. The general of ordnance (Oherfeldzeugmeister) had the whole artillery, with all artificers and gunners, under his command; next to him came his lieutenant and the master of ordnance (Zeugmeister) and his halberdiers and apprentices (Jungen). The gunner (Büchsenmeister) had charge of a piece, and must understand laying it by the quadrant. The artificer, armorer, and inspector (Zeugwart) had charge of all the materials for a piece; the wagon-master commanded the whole baggage train, and that was not small, for the battering-gun (Scharfmetze), which weighed five tons and threw a ball of 100 lbs, weight, required 33 horses, and the ammunition 32 wagons with 163 horses, &c. The harness-master took care of the teams, the powder-master of the ammunition. Finally the pioneer and pontoon train, which the perfected service of the artillery required, were commanded by the trench-master (Schanzmeister). Bridge-masters and their people were called hurryers (Schneller).

Warfare of Modern Times

With the invention of gunpowder commenced a new era in Europe; not in armies and warfare alone, but in the whole civil constitution of society a total transformation was begun, which proceeded not, it is true, with startling violence, yet all the more securely. Although, at first, gunpowder was used only for heavy artillery, of which the largest armies would have but a few pieces, so that, for two hundred years after its invention, its employment was still very rare, and effected no striking change in warfare, or in modes of attack and defence; yet this change was brought about so soon as the weapon was constructed of proportions small enough to be handled by a single man. The first effect was to lighten the whole equipment. The fire-arm threw its shot to great distances, and thus the long lances and swords lost all value, and were both made shorter and lighter. The common means of protection against blow and thrust, the cuirass, shield, and helmet, were no defence against the fire-arm, unless made very thick, when they became so weighty that they were no longer available for infantry; whereupon these also were laid aside. By the invention of gunpowder, victory was snatched from the hands of brute force and given to superior intelligence. The art of war, which until now had found its advantage only in superior numbers, or in the great personal strength and fiery courage of the warrior, became a science; and the most skilful usually carried away the victory from the merely brave. With this advance in the art of war, however, an unremitting practice of the same became requisite, and warfare could be waged only by experienced people, who were familiar with the use of fire-arms, and with the complicated manœuvres necessary to their employment in the field; even in peace, therefore, it became indispensable to maintain a standing army. To this cause is owing the great number of wars which were waged, either in the cause of religion, as the war of the Reformation, or on political grounds, as the wars of the Revolution and Succession.

That the organization, the armament, and even the support of such armies, were not placed at first on that stage of perfection where they now stand, is natural. The science continually advanced; each age brought new inventions; and even fashion asserted here, likewise, when uniformity of clothing was soon introduced, her irresistible powder. Hence, we find a constant change in the tactic, continually new and more effective weapons, and even the uniform ever advancing in improvement. The first impulse to the thorough reformations which, in the present century, created as it were a new warfare, was given by Napoleon, whose wars were waged in a manner unheard of until then. In his marches and countermarches, which were rapid as the storm, he needed light troops, and such he knew how to call into existence. As he effected a complete revolution in tactics, so did he also in the clothing and in the armament; and only our persistence in building upon the foundation laid by this mighty spirit, have we to thank for our present possession of an art and system of warfare approaching very closely to perfection, and capable often of producing the greatest effects with very slight means.

We will now examine more closely the system of war and military organization in some of the more prominent European States, and with respect to the different arms employed, whether infantry, cavalry, artillery, or engineers.

The Prussian Military System

The Prussian army was first established as a standing army under the Elector Erederick I., who formed, from among the feudal nobles, a body-guard of two hundred men, and placed in the fortresses some companies of landsknechts. Two hundred years later, the Elector John William had three companies of guards, of 100 men each, and five companies of infantry, 200 strong, all uniformly clad, at that time unusual. His successor, the great Elector, carried recruiting into foreign states, and his army went up to 30,000 men: among them, 300 artillery. Elector Frederick III., the first king of Prussia, had 36,000 men of disciplined troops, under the command of Prince Leopold I., of Dessau, and excellently organized. Frederick William I. introduced the rigid military discipline and most of the institutions which still prevail, especially the cantonment service, &c. At his death (1740) the army numbered 76,000 men. Frederick the Great gave his military regulations in 1743, and under him the modern tactic was really introduced. To the cavalry the king gave special attention, and Ziethen was the creator of the Prussian hussars, while Seidlitz organized the cavalry tactics. The artillery was newly constituted in 1759, and the organized horse-artillery brigades came forward in 1769, as an entirely new arm. The army consisted at that time of 120,000 infantry, 40,000 cavalry, 10,000 artillery, and 30,000 garrison troops. Under Frederick William II., the army, despite the French revolution, did not increase materially; for, at his death, it contained only 182,000 infantry, 41,000 cavalry, and 12,000 artillery. His successor, Frederick William III., created an entirely new army, after Napoleon, by the Treaty of Tilsit, had limited the Prussian force to 42,000 men. Prince William of Prussia, and Gen. von Scharnhorst, conducted the new organization; foreigners were discharged, and the people became the soldiers, every son of the soil being subject to military service. The cadet establishments were improved, and upper and lower military schools erected. By a rapid exchange of personnel in the small standing army (Kremper system) an immense disciplined force was prepared, and thus, in 1813, a trained army of 150,000 men could be immediately put on foot, which was increased in two months by the landwehr (reserve) to 250,000, and from 1813 to 1815, Prussia had one million of men under arms. At present, Prussia’s military organization is on the greatest scale, her power resting as much on the troops of the line, as on the completely trained and practised landwehr. At present, the Prussian army, exclusive of the “garde du corps,” is organized into four army-divisions, each of two army-corps, containing each two divisions of two brigades, one of infantry and one of cavalry. Every brigade consists of two regiments and one landwehr brigade. In addition to these, each army-corps has one artillery brigade, one pioneer division, one combined reserve-battalion, one light infantry and rifle division of two companies, one reserve landwehr battalion, one reserve landwehr squadron, two invalid companies, six half-invalid sections, one army-gendarmerie command. The field strength of the army-corps is 28,000 infantry, 5,200 cavalry, 5,000 artillery, and 750 pioneers.

The infantry consists of two regiments of the guard, two grenadier regiments, one battalion riflemen of the guard, one light infantry battalion of the guard, and one infantry battalion of instruction (the last assembled only in summer), one combined reserve-battalion of the guard, thirty-two infantry regiments of the line of three battalions (two line and one light battalion), eight reserve infantry regiments of two battalions, four rifle and four light infantry divisions, and eight combined reserve-infantry-battalions. Each battalion has four companies, with 6 officers, 20 non-commissioned officers, 4 musicians, 2 baggage men, and 226 men, and is, therefore, 258 in the aggregate. In peace, only about half of these are under arms. With the staff, the surgeons, the commissariat, musicians, &c., a regiment of the guard contains 3,143, a line regiment 3,105, a reserve regiment 2,075, aggregate, on the war footing. The light infantry and rifle battalions of the guard have each 1,050, the light infantry and rifle divisions 527 aggregate.

V. Plate 19: Prussian and French Infantry
Engraver: Henry Winkles

A general of infantry or cavalry (pl. 19, upper fig. 1,) usually commands the army corps and army division, one lieutenant general the division, one major general the brigade, one colonel the regiment, one lieutenant colonel or major the battalion. The general staff consists of 1 general, 37 staff officers (fig. 2), 15 captains, and 3 lieutenants. Of the adjutants (fig. 3), two are assigned to each prince-royal, to each general commanding, to each division, and one to every brigade; the rest of the adjutants are selected from the regiments to which they are attached.

The general’s uniform (fig. 1) is blue, with red, richly embroidered collar and cuffs, two rows of yellow buttons, and an aiguillette on the right shoulder. The undress uniform has no embroidery; only one row of buttons, and epaulettes with bouillons. Pantaloons grey, with red stripes, and edgings. Black and silver sash, with long tassels. Hat with white, and black plumes. The uniform of the general staff (fig. 2) is blue, with crimson collar and cuffs, with silver lace (gold for the war ministry), dark blue epaulettes, with silver crescent, buttons white. Hat with white and black plumes. The uniform of the adjutants (fig. 3) is dark blue, with green collar and cuffs, with light gold embroidery; yellow buttons, blue epaulettes, with gold crescent. Hat with white and black plumes. The rank of officers generally is distinguished by the epaulette. All wear silver sashes, with long silver and black tassels (the hussars buckled sashes without tassels), silver and black sword-knots, the cavalry with a leather strap. The epaulettes are of cloth, the color according to the army-division (white, red, yellow, or light blue), with silver or gilt crescent bound with black and silver galloon, and lined with red. Staff officers have silver fringe on the epaulette; adjutants general and king’s aide-de-camp, silver epaulettes; the lieutenant general, one star; the general of infantry two on epaulette or aiguillette; the field marshal, two embroidered gold bars; the colonel and captain have two small silver stars on the epaulette; the lieutenant colonel and first lieutenant have one; the major and second lieutenant none. Hussar officers have, instead of epaulettes, silver shoulder-knots, twisted for the staff officers, plain for the others, with stars upon them, according to rank. The non-commissioned officers have lace round the collar and cuffs (the bombardiers of artillery only round the cuffs), and black and white woollen sabre-knots (the sergeant-major, troop-sergeant, chief artificer (laboratory sergeant), and ensign, silver).

The color of the infantry uniform is dark blue; of the light infantry and rifle divisions green. The dress, a short frock-coat, reaching nearly to the knee, with one row of buttons and blue standing collar, a red flap on both sides in front, and red cuffs, with a flap, which, as well as the shoulder-strap, varies with the color of the army corps and division. The pantaloons are grey, with red edgings, in summer white. The head-covering is a helmet (casque) of leather, plated with brass, terminating above in a point, in which openings are arranged to permit the evaporation from the head to pass off. On the front of the casque the guard wear the flying eagle; the infantry the escutcheon eagle, with the king’s cypher, instead of which the landwehr eagle has the landwehr cross. The guard corps have white or black horse-tails on the helmets, and are distinguished further by white or yellow lace on cuffs and collar. The light infantry of the guard have black; the rifles, red collar and cuffs; the rest of the light infantry and rifles the same, but without lace. The equipment consists of bayonet-muskets, with percussion locks, rifles, and percussion-needle muskets; for the infantry, a short sabre, for the light infantry and rifles, a sword-bayonet, with woollen tassels. The belts are white for the infantry of the line and grenadiers; for the light battalions, rifles, &c., black. The first regiment of the guard has a peculiar uniform for great parades, which originated from the uniform of Frederick the Great’s time: pl. [19], upper fig. 4 shows a non-commissioned officer of this regiment in parade uniform, which is blue, and has red cuffs and collar, with white lace. The cap is white, with red upper part, and silver shield, on which is wrought the star of the guard. Fig. 5 is one of the guard riflemen (Neufchatel); fig. 6, a guard light infantry man; fig. 7, a grenadier of the guard, of the Emperor Francis regiment (red shoulder-straps, with yellow); fig. 8, a grenadier of the Emperor Alexander’s regiment of the guard (white shoulder-straps, with red); fig. 9, an officer of infantry; fig. 10, sergeant-major of infantry; fig. 11, musketeer; fig. 12, drummer of infantry; fig. 13, officer of light infantry division; fig. 14, private of rifle division; pl. 20, fig. 10, private of the landwehr, in marching equipment.

V. Plate 20: Prussian and French Cavalry
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The cavalry contains one body-guard regiment (garde du corps), pl. 20, fig. 1: white frock-coats, with red trimmings; collar and cuffs, with white lace. Helmet of yellow metal, with white edges, and the silver star of the guard. For parade yellow, at other times white or black cuirass, with breast and back-piece; German saddle, white belts; red caparison, with the guard star and white trimmings. One cuirassier regiment of the guard (fig. 2): white frock-coat, with sky-blue trimmings; collar and cuffs, with white lace; helmet same as the body-guard, but, instead of the point, having the Prussian eagle, in silver, standing; caparison sky-blue, with the guard-star, and red and white trimmings; cuirass as the garde du corps. Eight cuirassier regiments (fig. 5): white frock-coat, with black, crimson, sky-blue, orange, pink, dark blue, yellow, and green trimmings; collar and cuffs; white casques, with yellow plating and points; white cuirass; caparison according to the color of the collar. One guard dragoon regiment: deep blue frock-coat, with crimson collar and cuffs, and yellow lace; white helmet, with yellow plate and point, and the guard-star. Four dragoon regiments (fig. 6): same colored frock-coat, with red, black, pink, and white facings; black helmet, with yellow plate and point; Hungarian saddle; white belts; light blue caparison, with trimmings according to color of the collar. One guard hussar regiment: dark blue pelisse and dolman, with yellow lace; hussar cap, with hair plume and wings; buckled sash; red sabretache, with yellow cypher. Twelve hussar regiments, with various colored pelisses and dolmans. The 1st and 2d body regiments (fig. 3): black, with white lace; red sabretache, with white cypher, the death’s-head on the cap; black caparison, with red and white trimmings; black belts; Hungarian saddle. The 7th regiment: black, with yellow lace. The 4th: brown, with yellow lace. The 3d and 8th (fig. 8): dark blue, with yellow and white lace. The 6th, 10th, and 11th: dark green, with white and with yellow lace. The 9th and 12th: light blue, with white and with yellow lace. The 5th (Blücher’s) regiment: crimson, with white lace; caparison crimson, with black and white trimmings. Two guard hulan regiments (fig. 4): blue jackets (collet), with different colored collars, cuffs, facings, and girdles; deep blue chapkas (caps); white belts, and lance with black and white pennon; white horse-hair plume on the chapka; Hungarian saddle: dark blue caparison, with trimmings the color of the facings. Eight hulan regiments (fig. 7): dark blue, with red collars, cuffs, facings, and girdles; deep blue chapka, without plume. The landwehr cavalry (fig. 9) have dark blue frock-coat, with colored collar and shoulder straps, and girdle with colored edge; black casques, with yellow plating and point, and lances like the hulans; Hungarian saddle, with dark blue caparison, with trimmings the color of the collar; belts white. The arms of the cavalry are: for the cuirassiers, the long, straight sword, for the remainder, the curved sabre, pistols, and, in addition, carbines for the dragoons, and for the hulans, lances. The fourth subdivision of each squadron has carbines. Each cavalry regiment has four squadrons, with 6 officers, 15 non-commissioned officers, 1 surgeon, 1 farrier, 3 trumpeters,and 127 (in the guard 137) men, so that, including the staff, the regiment numbers 616 (in the guard 636) aggregate, with 570 royal horses.

The Artillery consists of one guard and eight army brigades, and one laboratory division. Each brigade has 3 horse and 12 foot batteries, of which each is manned by one company. There is besides, one company of artificers. Three companies man 12-pounder batteries of six 12-pounder guns and two 10-pounder howitzers each; three horse and five of the foot companies man 6-pounder batteries of six 6-pounder guns, and two 7-pounder howitzers each. Two foot companies man each a howitzer battery, the one of six 10-pounder, the other of eight 7-pounder howitzers. Three foot companies are assigned to the fortress service. In peace, only 20 pieces of the brigade are harnessed, and then the brigade has 1 brigadier, 3 chiefs of sections, 1 staff officer, 15 captains, 16 first and 32 second lieutenants, 192 non-commissioned officers, 240 bombardiers, 35 musicians, 980 cannoniers, 1 regimental surgeon, 16 company surgeons, 6 farriers; aggregate 1524 men, which in time of war is increased to 5000 men and 3600 horses. The uniform is, for the foot artillery, the same as the infantry; for the horse artillery, as for the dragoons, only that the frock-coats are dark blue. Collar flaps and cuffs are black, with red edgings, for the officers velvet, for the guard with yellow lace; edgings and shoulder straps red, buttons yellow. The helmets as for the troops of the line, but the guard and horse artillery have horse-hair plumes. The saddle for the light artillery is Hungarian, for the field artillery, German; caparison dark blue, with black, red-edged trimmings. The arms, short sabres for the foot artillery; for the light, cavalry sabres and pistols; belts white.

The engineer corps is commanded by a lieutenant general, and has charge of the fortification service and the pioneer duty. It numbers 2 generals, 20 staff officers, 230 other officers, and embraces 1 guard and 8 pioneer divisions, besides 2 reserve divisions; in all 20 companies of 111 men, each of which forms 2 sapper, 1 miner, and 1 pontonier section. Two companies of 219 men (in the field 628 men) form a division. The guard has 280 men and 12 mariniers. Each division has also a pontoon train, in the field 206 pontoons, 54 train wagons, 1152 men of the train, and 2214 horses. The pioneer uniform is that of the artillery, with white lace for the guard, black belts, and white buttons. The arms, a fascine knife, sharp in front, the back toothed like a saw, and a bayonet-carbine. Besides these, each pioneer carries one of the most necessary entrenching utensils.

The Austrian Military System

The Austrian army stands under the general command of the Aulic or Ministerial Council of War (Hofkriegsrath), and consists of 12 general commands, each of which contains several divisions, each under a lieutenant general and made up of 2 to 3 brigades (each of from 4 to 8 battalions or squadrons) under a major general. The general officers were, a few years ago, 4 field marshals, 20 generals, 98 lieutenant generals, and 122 major generals, all active, and about the same number inactive. The uniform of generals is a white dress-coat with white collar, red cuffs and skirt facings, red pantaloons with gold lace, sword in golden baldric; cocked hat with green feather. The designations of rank: field marshal, embroidery on cuffs and collar; general, two strips of lace on the sleeve; lieutenant general, one strip of lace 2\(\frac{1}{2}\) inches wide; major general, one strip 2 inches wide. Undress uniform: pike-grey with red collar and cuffs. Generals who have had the rank of colonel in the Hungarian cavalry wear hussar uniform, red dolmans and red breeches, white pelisse trimmed with sable, bear-skin cap with white heron plume; sabre and sabretache. The designations of rank for the remainder of the officers, who wear sword-knots of black and gold with yellow and black silk sash, but no epaulettes, are displayed upon the shako; for the lieutenants, lace two inches wide, black in the centre, gold at the sides; captain of cavalry and infantry the same, gold in the middle, black at sides; and the staff-officers, in addition to this, narrow lace around the shako and lace one inch wide about the cuffs. If the regiment wears helmets, the officer has on his a black and gold crest. The non-commissioned officers have lace like the officers, according to their different grades, but of wool; lance-corporals only a black and yellow cord. Sword-knot for all of yellow silk.

The troops consist of guards, who, however, are not reckoned among the field troops. To these belong:

  1. The Arcieren Guards, composed entirely of persons who have served as officers, from captains upwards; 56 men with 12 officers, who, down to the second lieutenant, have been generals in the army, the sergeants have been staff-officers. They are 526 all mounted on black horses, and have deep red uniform, with black collar and cuffs and gold lace.
  2. The Hungarian Body Guard, composed of young Hungarian nobility; the officers have all been generals, staff-officers, or captains of cavalry in the army; there are 4 of them and 65 guards, all mounted on white horses. They wear bright red dolmans with silver, a tiger-skin instead of the pelisse, bear-skin cap with heron plume, red pantaloons, and yellow boots.
  3. Lombardo-Venetian Body Guard, composed of young Italian nobles, 60 strong. It and the Hungarian Guard serve as a preparatory school for officers. The uniform is red with deep blue velvet collar and cuffs, white pantaloons, yellow epaulettes and aiguillettes, silver helmet.
  4. Halberdier Life Guards in Vienna and Milan: 4 officers, 12 non-commissioned officers, 110 men, and 5 musicians. Uniform as No. 1, but halberds as weapons.
  5. The Palace Guard: 4 officers, 24 non-commissioned officers, 250 men, 4 drummers. Uniform pike-grey with black hats, white pantaloons, and high boots. Arms: bayonet-carbine and short sabre.
V. Plate 21: Austrian and British Infantry
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The infantry consists:

  1. Of 61 regiments of the line, of which 15 are Hungarian, 13 Galitzian, 8 Italian, 8 Bohemian, 5 Austrian, 4 Moravian, 3 Illyrian, 4 Silesian, and 1 Styrian. Each regiment, save the Hungarian, has, besides two grenadier companies, 2 battalions of six and 1 of four companies. To these in time of war are added the landwehr, but not to the Italian regiments. The infantry company has 4 officers, 14 non-commissioned officers, 12 lance corporals, 2 drummers, and 186 men. The regiment has, without the grenadiers, 3562 men in peace, and 4437 in war. The Hungarian regiment contains in peace 4434, in war 5759 men. The arms: muskets with bayonets and percussion locks; 120 men in each regiment have rifles with sword bayonets. The bayonet is carried in the belt instead of a sabre; belts white. The uniform is white with collars and cuffs of various colors; pantaloons deep blue, shakos with metal ornaments and pompon (pl. 21, upper fig. 2, an officer, fig. 6, private).
  2. Of the grenadiers: they form 20 battalions, which are composed of the grenadier companies of the different regiments of the line. A grenadier company has 3 officers, 15 non-commissioned officers, and 155 men. The uniform is as for the infantry of the line; instead of the shako the grenadiers wear the bear-skin cap, with red sack and sabre (upper fig. 5, a drummer, a sapper, and a grenadier). Of late the grenadiers also wear deep-blue pantaloons. The Hungarian grenadiers (fig. 4) have tight deep blue pantaloons, trimmed with black and yellow cord, and laced boots (Baganschen). The officers (fig. 3) have tight pantaloons trimmed with black and gold also, and top-boots (Zisclnnen) sewed and with the tops falling half way down the shin.
  3. Of Border Troops (Grenztruppen): 17 regiments of (Czaikisten) light troops are organized in a peculiar manner along the southern boundary of Dalmatia as far as Bukowina, seventeen circles of territory being placed under an entirely military constitution. Each regiment has 2 battalions and numbers 2727 men. The Siebenbürger regiments, however, only 2677 men. Each regiment has 240 riflemen and 50 artillerists. With the (Szekler) frontier hussars, the frontier troops number 50,000 men, in war 80,000, and when all the serviceable are called out, 214,000 men. They are armed with bayonet-muskets and sabres; the uniform is brown with cuffs of all colors; belts black; buttons yellow and white; pantaloons as in the Hungarian regiments (fig. 1, an officer; fig. 7, a private).
  4. Of Jägers: consisting of 1 Tyrolese Jager regiment of 24 companies in 4 battalions. The company has 4 officers, 20 sergeant-majors, 12 sergeants, 12 lance corporals, and 184 men; in all (with the staff), 5459 men. Also 12 Jäger battalions, in peace of 1278, in war, of 1490 men. Arms: the first and second rank, smooth-bore jägers and sabres; the third rank, rifles with sword bayonets (pl. 21, upper fig. 8, an officer and private). Uniform: pike-grey, with green collar and cuffs and yellow buttons; pike-grey pantaloons; round Corsican hat with upturned brim; black belts; boots and gaiters.

The cavalry consists:

  1. Of 6 Cuirassier regiments, of 3 divisions each of 2 squadrons 165 strong. In war, a cuirassier regiment consists of 1294 men, with 1283 service horses. Arms: long straight sword (Pallasch), two pistols, black-lacquered half-cuirass. Uniform white, with colored collar-flaps and cuffs, deep blue pantaloons, helmet black. German saddle with cover of white lamb’s-wool, bound with red; red shabrack with yellow binding (gold lace for officers).
  2. Of 6 Dragoon regiments, strength as above. Arms: sabre, long carbine, two pistols. Uniform the same as cuirassiers, only without cuirass.
  3. Of 7 regiments of Light Horse of 4 divisions and 8 squadrons, containing in peace 184, in war 208 men, whence the regiment numbers in peace 1518, and in war 2044 men, with 1972 horses. Arms as above, only short carbines and rifles. Uniform: 4 regiments white; 3 green, otherwise same as the dragoons.
  4. Of 12 Hussar regiments, whose strength and arms are in all respects the same as for the light horse. Uniform for 3 regiments, dark blue; for 2, deep blue; for 3, light blue; for 4, dark green. Pelisse, pantaloons, and dolmans of the same color; only for the green hussars the pantaloons are dark red. Top boots with turned-down, falling tops (Zischmen). For common service the hussars wear blackish grey pantaloons and common boots. Shakos for 5 regiments black, for 7 colored, with black and yellow plumes.
  5. Of 4 Ulan regiments: formation as in the light horse; arms the same also, and in addition, a lance with black and yellow pennon. Uniform green with red; shakos yellow, green, red, and white, with yellow cap cord, and horse-hair plume. Officers have full golden epaulettes and golden cap cord.

The artillery consists:

  1. Of the bombardier corps, 5 companies, 2082 men. School for the artillery officers.
  2. Five field-artillery regiments of 4 battalions, 3663 men; they man in the field the 3-, 6-, 12-, and 18-pounder batteries. Each battery has four guns and two 7- or 18-pounder howitzers; the field-artillery man also the cavalry batteries, which consist of six 6-pounders. Most of the gunners and matrosses can drive also. The field-artillery can man 200 batteries.
  3. Of the rocket or firework corps, containing 4 companies or 766 men, which in war can be still further increased. It mans 16 congreve-rocket batteries of 6 stands each.
  4. Of garrison artillery, mostly half invalids. Arms: sabre. Belts white. Uniform dark brown with red; one row of yellow buttons. The officers have gold lace and cocked hats, while the privates have Corsican hats, with black and yellow feather plumes.

The engineer corps has:

  1. One engineer-director, 2 lieutenant generals, 7 generals, 36 staff and 136 other officers, and 7 cadets. Uniform light blue with cherry-red, yellow buttons, and hat with feathers.
  2. Five companies of miners of 152 men; with the staff, in all, 830 men.
  3. Six companies of sappers of 149 men, with the staff, 1058 men. Uniform for both light blue and crimson; shakos black, with suitable emblems in brass-plate; belts black.
  4. Pioneers: 2 battalions of 4 companies; in war, 3 battalions. The corps has in peace 2004 men, in war, 3051. Arms: muskets and fascine-knives. Uniform: pike-grey and green; white buttons; pike-grey pantaloons; shakos with horse-hair plume.
  5. Pontoniers: 6 companies of 150 men; in all, 918 men who manage the Biragosche bridge-trains. Arms: carbines and sabres; black belts. Uniform: light blue with red; white buttons; shakos with horse-hair plume.

The French Military System

The Army of France belongs to the oldest of standing armies, for King Charles VII. established in the 15th century 5 compagnies d’ordonnance, each of 500 knights and 5000 light horsemen, who wore uniform tabards. To these Louis XI. added 6000 Swiss and 10,000 French infantry. In 1610, Henry IV. had already 37,000 men, and after the peace of the Pyrenees, in 1659, the French army amounted to 100,000 men. After the peace of Nimeguen, Louis XIV. had 138,482 men, who during the war of the Spanish succession were increased to 392,233, but were diminished again afterwards. Louis XV. had in 1759, 33,000 men, subsequently 159,016, who were diminished under Louis XVI. to 147,236. The army of the first republic, 139,500 men strong in 1792, had in 1794 increased to 1,169,144 men, of whom 749,545 were then under arms. In the year 1825 the French army contained 182,385 men.

At present the defence of France is intrusted to a standing army and to the National Guard. The National Guard was organized on the very day after the taking of the Bastlle, but after the Revolution of 1830 was re-established and first attained its full splendor. With very few exceptions every independent man from 20 to 60 years of age, not disgraced by crime, is liable for service. The organization is entirely military. In each arrondissement the National Guard is arranged into companies, battalions, and regiments; each company has a small, each battalion a large color (drapeau). The state provides the arms, the individual his uniform. The officers, chiefs of battalion and squadron, and non-commissioned officers, are chosen for three years by the guard themselves; the higher officers are designated by the government from ten candidates proposed to it. If the service lasts longer than one day their pay and subsistence can be required as in the line; longer than two months the service cannot endure. On the register are found 1,871,078 men of arrondissement infantry, 1,823,958 of canton infantry, 10,415 cavalry, 19,015 artillery, 54,723 sappers, 2012 marines and laborers, in all 3,781,206 uniformed men, of whom, however only one million is armed. The uniform and arms of the National Guard differ little from those of the standing army; the arms given them are indeed those which have been previously in use by the troops of the line. Pl. 19, lower fig. 11, represents a captain, and fig. 12, a private of the grenadier corps of the National Guard. The frock-coats are blue, with blue red-edged breast-facings; collars, cuffs, and skirt-facings red, the epaulettes of red wool for the rank and file, and for the officers of silver, who have also a silver crescent below the collar in front. Belts white. The officers have curved sabres. The bearskin cap is black, with a metal plate and red tuft. Pantaloons red in winter, in summer white, boots and white gaiters. The uniform of the chasseurs corresponds exactly with the above described, save that the covering for the head, instead of the bear-skin cap, is a shako, with pompon, cap-plate, and red binding. The cavalry is variously uniformed. Pl. 20, fig. 18, is an officer of light cavalry. The jacket is dark blue, with blue red-edged breast-facings, pantaloons blue with red trimmings, and the cap (chapka) the same color, with silver-mountings and cap-cord, and red horsehair tuft. Epaulettes silver, belts white. Shabrack and valise dark-blue with red trimming.

With respect to the standing army, France is divided into 24 military districts, each of which comprises within it several departments. France had a short while since nine marshals; the superior general staff forms two sections, one of which contains the active generals, the other those of the reserve. The first should not number in time of peace more than 80 lieutenant generals and 160 brigadier generals (maréchaux-de-camp), the second is unlimited. The peace establishment of the French army is fixed at:

  1. 100 regiments of line and light infantry of 3 battalions, with 7 companies. The arms consist of bayonet-muskets and the so-called sabre-poniard, a short straight sword in the waist belt on the left side, the bayonet in its scabbard on the right. Uniform: frock-coat (blouse) reaching to the knee, blue, with collar of some other color, and edgings in front and on the cuffs, according to the color of the collar; red pantaloons and epaulettes; belts white; shakos black, bound with yellow or white, with brass agraffe, pompon, and cap-cord. Pl. 19, lower fig. 1, a chief of battalion (chef-de-bataillon): blue body-coat, with collar and skirt facings of different colors. Silver epaulettes with full fringe and crescent. Red pantaloons. On the shako the tricolor feather plume, red at top, then white, blue below. Fig. 2, a captain; uniform the same; light epaulettes, and on the shako a pompon with small tuft. Fig. 4, a first-lieutenant and color-bearer: one half and one full epaulette and crescent; shako with pompon and short tuft; red sash; the color from the staff out blue, white, and red; the bands tricolor also with gold borders; the Gallic cock, which forms the staff-head, gilded. The sous-lieutenants have only two half-epaulettes; the non-commissioned officers are distinguished from one another in rank by chevrons on the cuff, and the years of service are indicated by chevrons on the arm above the elbow. Figs. 5 and 6, show non-commissioned officers. Fig. 8, a private of infantry, line or light. Fig. 3 is a drum-major, and fig. 7 a sapper of the same infantry, their uniform correspending in all respects with that of the regiment to which they belong.
  2. 10 battalions of foot-chasseurs, each of 8 companies. Arms: rifles and sword bayonets made to fix. Uniform: blue frock with different edgings about the collar, cuffs, and lapels; grey pantaloons; black gaiters and boots; green woollen epaulettes with brass crescent; black belts; grey shakos, with black trimming and horsehair tuft, for parade; at other times oilcloth cover and pompon. Pl. 19, lower fig. 9, chasseur d’Orleans in marching equipment; fig. 10, in parade-dress; and the other at fig. 9, in camp costume: blue jacket; grey linen pantaloons; green shoulder strap; blue forage cap with edging.
  3. 1 regiment foot Zouaves in Algiers, of 3 battalions, with 9 companies. Uniform: blue red-edged jacket; blue turban with red fez; wide, red, Arabian trowsers and gaiters. Arms: bayonet-muskets and sword-bayonets.
  4. 3 battalions of light infantry in Africa, each of 10 companies. Uniform: blue frock with different colored collar; red pantaloons and shakos; white epaulettes and cloak.
  5. 12 discipline and punishment companies (compagnies de punition et discipline); and 1 foreign legion, in 2 regiments of 3 battalions, with 8 companies.

The cavalry consists of 10 regiments of cuirassiers of 5 squadrons, which in war can be increased by one. 2 regiments of carbiniers; 12 regiments of dragoons; 8 of lancers or ulans; 13 of chasseurs a cheval; 9 of hussars. Besides these, in Africa: 4 regiments chasseurs d’Afrique; 3 squadrons of Spahis in Bona, and 4 regiments of regular Spahis in Oran. Arms: long sabre, but slightly curved, and with basket-hilt, and for the reserve and line cavalry long carbines, as with the German troops. Uniform: very showy, dressy, and rich. Carbiniers and cuirassiers, blue jackets, with helmets, and back and breast cuirass; dragoons green, with helmets also; lancers light blue with red collar and cap; chasseurs green, faced with yellow, with white buttons, red shakos, sugar-loaf form cut off at the top; hussars with pelisse and dolman of various colors; the Spahis very elegantly clad in the Turkish fashion. Saddle-covers throughout of white sheepskin with the wool. Pl. 20, fig. 12, shows an officer of cuirassiers; fig. 11, a standard-bearer of carbiniers. Fig. 13a, a trumpeter, and fig. 13b, a private of dragoons. Fig. 14, a chasseur with the now abandoned bearskin cap, in place of which the shako is at present used; fig. 15, a chef-d’escadron of lancers (the pennons are red above, white in the middle, blue below). Fig. 16, an officer, and fig. 17, a private of hussars. Fig. 19 is an aide-de-camp.

The artillery consists of 14 regiments, to 10 of which belong 15 batteries each, and to 4 fourteen batteries each, so that they man in all 206 batteries, of which 32 are flying artillery. Each battery contains nine 8- or 12-pounder guns. To the artillery belong also 1 regiment of pontoniers of 12 companies, and 12 artificer companies; half a company of armorers, and 4 squadrons of train. Arms, as for the infantry, the musket with slings. Uniform: blue jackets edged with red, with the same kind of collar, red cuffs, yellow buttons and red epaulettes; white belts; blue pantaloons with red stripes; shakos with cross-cannon, red cap-cord (gold for officers), and red horsehair tuft.

The engineer corps consist of 3 regiments, each of 2 battalions, composed of 1 miner and 7 sapper companies. Each regiment has in addition 1 company of sapper conductors, and 2 companies of laborers. Arms as in the infantry, but shorter muskets. Uniform: blue, edged with red, collar and cuffs black, white buttons.

The whole French army numbers: the general staff 3879 men and 318 horses; the gendarmerie, 14,663 men and 10,316 horses; the infantry, 291,408 men and 516 horses; the cavalry, 55,531 men and 49,046 horses; artillery, 35,410 men and 49,906 horses; engineers, 8,753 men and 1150 horses; military train, 6,729 men and 5,539 horses; veterans, 3,789 men; government of Algiers, 1,426 men and 207 horses. In all 421,588 men and 91,708 horses. To these are to be added the contingent troops of natives of Algiers, 4,321 men and 1,840 horses.

The Belgian Military System

Before the separation from Holland (1831), there was no Belgian army, and even immediately after the separation as good as none. Most of all, efficient officers were wanting, and not until the year 1833 had any sufficient organization been reached. General Goethals, Count d’Hane, and Dufailly strove in succession, but vainly, to put a regular army on foot, until at last De Brouckere, then Minister of Finance, undertook the war department, and by his great circumspection and activity, accomplished much. The volunteer corps was disbanded and divided among the chasseur regiments. In the administration, the very strictest severity was practised, every mal-practice punished by cashiering, and all inefficient officers dismissed; in their place experienced French officers were employed, and 20,000 men from the first ban of the militia were drafted to the army, and drilled at the garrisons. The infantry was increased by two line and two chasseur regiments, and the mounted regiment raised from four to six squadrons. In the course of three or four months, the king could control more than 48,000 men, 3,000 horses, and 60 cannon. After De Brouckere had sent in his resignation, the artillery general, Evain, completed the organization. At present, the Belgian infantry consists of three regiments of chasseurs of three battalions, with six companies, one regiment of elite troops of four battalions, twelve regiments infantry of the line of three battalions, and seven regiments reserve, altogether twenty-three battalions. The armament is throughout like the French, and the uniform also after the French cut. The line infantry has blue coats, woollen epaulettes (the officers gold or silver, and for all grades double), red cuffs and skirt facings, dark breast-facings, yellow edged, grey pantaloons, red edged, white belts, shakos in the French style. The chasseurs have green coats.

V. Plate 22: British and Belgian Cavalry
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The cavalry has two chasseur regiments of six squadrons, two of lancers of six squadrons, two of cuirassiers of four squadrons, one of guides of six squadrons. Pl. 22, fig. 12, is a chasseur of the 2d regiment. Uniform: green jacket and pantaloons, red collar and skirt facings, the cuff red edged; red trimmings on the pantaloons, white epaulettes, and red shako, with white cap-cord, and horse-hair tuft; white belts, green shabrack, with red trimmings, saddle cover of white sheepskin. For parade (fig. 11), officers have white pantaloons. Fig. 14, an officer; fig. 15, a private of lancers or Ulans, 2d regiment; blue pantaloons and jackets, with yellow breast-facings, collars, cuffs, and skirt-facings, yellow stripes also on the pantaloons, and yellow shakos, with white horse-hair tuft; white belts and epaulettes, white cap-cord (officers silver and silver sashes), lance with pennon, yellow above, red below; blue shabrack, with yellow trimmings, black saddle cover. Pl. 22, fig. 10, cuirassier officer: double, white, polished cuirass, iron helmet, with horse-tail and white feather plume, long straight sword (Palasch), blue pantaloons and jacket, with yellow collar, skirt-facings, and edgings, and yellow stripes on the pantaloons; silver epaulettes, blue shabrack, with white binding. Fig. 13, officer of the regiment of guides: green pantaloons and jacket, with green, white-edged collar and cuffs, and white stripes on the pantaloons, pink breast and skirt-facings, silver epaulettes and cap-cord, white belts; high, upright, bear-skin cap, with red calpac and white feather plume, and also, for ordinary service, a black shako; green shabrack, with white trimmings, saddle cover of white sheep-skin, bound with red.

The artillery consists of three regiments, who man altogether 15 batteries with 130 pieces 6-and 12-pounders and howitzers. Fig. 16 is an officer; fig. 17 a private of flying artillery. Uniform: dark blue pantaloons and jacket, with red-edged collar, red cuffs, skirt-facings, and stripes on the pantaloons, and red epaulettes, cap-cord, and shako trimmings (gold for officers); belts white, with yellow grenades, black shako, with brass cross cannon, black horse-hair tuft; blue shabrack, with red binding (for officers gold). Arms: curved sabre and pistols. To the above artillery must be added: 1 squadron artillery train, 1 company pontoniers, 1 company artillery artificers, 1 company artillery armorers.

The engineer corps consists of two batteries of sappers and miners. Figs. 18 and 19 are officers; fig. 20 is a private of the engineer corps. Arms: short bayonet-musket and sabre. Uniform: blue coat and pantaloons (the latter white in summer), the coat edged with red, with grenades on the skirts, pantaloons with broad red stripes; red epaulettes and shako trimmings (gold for officers); grenade on front of shako.

The English Military System

In England, even when Scotland and Ireland were united with her, there was for centuries no standing army, but the inhabitants capable of bearing arms were called together when a war commenced, and disbanded again when the war was concluded. Thus was it still, on the side of the people, even in the civil war, although the king had then a kind of standing army. Afterwards, the army was increased, and at the time of the seven years’ war it amounted to 100,000 men. In the French revolution the army was yet further increased, and had risen in 1805 to 200,000 men, and in 1814 to more than 450,000. The king is commander-in-chief of the army, and the Parliament has no share in the control or organization of the same, the general whom the king appoints to the command being responsible to him alone. The secretary of war has to do only with the financial relations. Without consent of Parliament, no standing army at all can be brought on foot, and the present one is granted only from year to year, and of such strength alone as parliament permit. Should the appropriations not be made for the new year, then the army must be dissolved. In England, no form of conscription exists, but there is only voluntary enlistment for bounty-money, at first for seven years. Each regiment has its recruiting district. The punishments are very severe, and corporal chastisement is yet practised. Officers’ commissions, as high as a lieutenant colonelcy, are purchasable, and the established price for a lieutenant colonelcy in the foot-guards is 7,250 pounds sterling, and so down to the ensigncy, which costs 1,200 pounds. In the line, the price of the same commissions is 4,500 and 450 pounds, but these places are often purchased much higher. To guard against abuses, various restrictions are imposed, and the king appoints to the places vacated by death. We refer here only to the European army of Great Britain.

The general staff consists of 6 field-marshals, 90 generals, 106 lieutenant generals, and 216 major generals. All officers included, there are twenty-three soldiers to one officer. The commissioned officers are 7,532 in number; the non-commissioned, 28,000. Pl. 21, lower fig. 1, is a general of infantry. Uniform: red, with blue, richly embroidered collar and cuffs; golden sash and epaulettes; hat with yellow agraffe and white plumes; shabrack and holsters, purple velvet and gold; head-gear red, richly stitched with gold.

The infantry consists of:

  1. Three regiments infantry of the guard, the Grenadier guards having 26, the Coldstream and 3d regiment having 16 companies of 45 to 90 men each. The infantry have bayonet-muskets, and the bayonet in its sheath on the left side, lower fig. 2 shows an officer of the grenadier guards. Uniform: red, with blue collar and cuffs, the collar richly embroidered with gold, and with the star of the Order of the Garter, the cuff with gold flaps; white skirt facings and white pantaloons. Red silk sash; rather straight sabre; full gold epaulettes; bear-skin cap, with gold tassel; white tuft and red top, with the star of the Garter. Yellow buttons; white baldric, with plate and star over the right shoulder, in which the sabre is carried.
  2. 100 regiments of infantry, each regiment of 10 companies, save the 68th, which has 20. Six regiments of these are Highlanders, eight light, and four fusilier regiments. Lower fig. 3 is an officer of the 75th regiment (grenadier). Red uniform, with white collar and cuffs, the collar with embroidered lace; the cuffs with red flaps, edged with white. Yellow buttons; instead of epaulettes, gold wings. Red silk sash, white baldric, with gold plate; bear-skin cap, like the guards; pantaloons white. Arms: a rather straight sabre. Fig. 4, officer, and fig. 10, private of infantry. Red uniform, with yellow collar, cuffs, flaps, and buttons; full gold epaulettes, collar standing, shako with gold plate, gold cap-cord, and white feather plume; dark red sash, and white pantaloons. The sabre is suspended from a white baldric with a gold plate, over the right shoulder. Fig. 5, officer of the 9th light infantry regiment. Uniform: red, with yellow cuffs and collar, laced, and with red flaps; instead of epaulettes, gold wings on the shoulders; dark red silk sash; white pantaloons; black shako, with gold plate, and pompon without capcord. Arms: straight sabre, in white baldric, with gold plate and chains. Fig. 6, officer of the royal Highlanders. Red uniform, with black collar and cuffs, yellow flaps and buttons, gold-wrought lace on the collar, and gold wings on the shoulders. No pantaloons, but only the Scotch kilt of green and black tartan. White sporran, with gold tassels. Shoes, and plaited buskins. The sash, of dark red silk, is worn over the shoulders from left to right, the knot over the right hip. Black bear-skin cap, with green, red, and white lower part, and red feather plume. Arms: straight sword with basket hilt, hung over the right shoulder by a baldric with gold plate, and a long dagger on the right hip. Fig. 7, private, and fig. 8, drummer of Highlanders of the line. Uniform: red jackets, with blue collars, breast-facings, and cuffs. Yellow lace on collars, breast-facings, and skirts; white skirt facings and white wings; belts also white. No pantaloons, but kilt of black and green tartan; shoes and plaited white and brown gaiters; bear-skin cap, with red and white chequered lower part and white tuft. The drummers decorated with blue and white lace and chevrons. Arms: bayonet-muskets.
  3. One light brigade, consisting of two light infantry and rifle battalions (of 10 companies). Arms: rifles and sword-bayonets. Fig. 9, officer, fig. 11, bugler of rifles. Uniform: green coat, with black collar and cuffs, and woollen wings. The officers have green pelisses like the hussars, with black trimmings and lace. Green pantaloons (officers with silver stripes); black belts; officers with silver plate and chain, and the sabre hung with strings. Black shakos, with leather trimmings, yellow plate, and pompon.

The cavalry consists of:

  1. Three regiments Life-Guards, of 8 companies of 50 to 60 men. Pl. 22, fig. 1, is an officer of the “Queen’s Own” Life-Guards. Arms: straight cuirassier sword with basket hilt, white cuirass with breast and back piece. Uniform: red coat, with blue skirt facings, collar and cuffs entirely covered with gold embroidery. Gold epaulettes, aiguillettes, sash, bandolier, and baldric, gauntlet-gloves, and tight pantaloons, white, with high boots; lofty bear-skin cap, with gold tassels and white tuft; head-stall richly stitched with gold; blue shabrack, with gold trimmings bound with red. Mounted entirely on black horses. Fig. 2, officer of 2d regiment Life-Guards. Arms and uniform the same in all respects as for the Queen’s, only instead of the bear-skin cap, silver helmets, with gold plate and binding, and black crest. Fig. 3, an officer of the 3d Life-Guards. Uniform and arms as for the 1st, save that the coat is blue instead of red, the gold embroidered collar, cuffs, and skirt facings red instead of blue, and on the somewhat lower bear-skin cap a dark red feather plume. The shabrack scarlet, with gold trimmings and embroidery. Mounted entirely on brown horses.
  2. Seven regiments dragoon guards, of 8 companies, and 3 heavy and 13 light cavalry regiments of 8 companies of 50 to 60 men. Fig. 5 shows an officer of heavy dragoons. Arms: long straight sword and pistols, the private with carbine besides; yellow helmet, with black horse-tail. Uniform: red coat, with yellow buttons, white collar and cuffs, richly embroidered with gold, and white skirt facings; golden bandolier and baldric (privates white), white sabretache, with gold embroidery, gold sash and cartridge box, gold epaulettes; blue pantaloons, with gold stripes (red for privates); blue shabrack, trimmed with gold, bear-skin saddle-cover, bound with red. Fig. 4, officer of 10th light dragoon regiment. Dark blue pelisse, dolman, and pantaloons; pelisse and dolman very rich, with gold lace and cord; pantaloons trimmed with gold lace (woollen for privates); gold baldric (privates, white leather belts); red sabretache, gold embroidered, and with gold lace; round bear-skin cap, with red calpac, gold cord, and white heron plume; red shabrack and saddle-cover, trimmed with gold. Arms: sabre and pistols, the privates carbines also. Fig. 8, officer of 1st hussar regiment. Bright blue pelisse and dolman, with silver cords (white woollen for privates), and black fur trimmings. Red pantaloons, with two gold stripes; red shako, trimmed with gold, and black horse-hair tuft. Black belts and sabretache, with gold plate; blue shabrack, with white binding, red notched; bear-skin saddle-cover, red cloak-bag; head-stall white, holsters red. Pl. 22, fig. 9, officer of 11th hussar regiment. Dark blue pelisse and dolman, with rich gold cords, lace and black fur trimmings; crimson pantaloons, with gold stripes; gold bandolier and baldric; red sabretache, with gold cypher and binding; holsters with bear-skin cover; head-stall and trappings red, richly worked with gold; round black bear-skin cap, with crimson calpac and white heron plume. Fig. 6, officer of 1st lancers regiment. Arms: sabre and pistols, and for the privates, lances with pennons, blue above, red below. Uniform: red jacket, with black collar and cuffs, and white skirt facings, the collar richly embroidered with gold, and the cuff with gold flaps. Yellow buttons, and gold bandolier and baldric; blue shabrack, with gold name-cypher and binding; blue pantaloons with broad gold stripes (red for privates); cap, black below, with gold sun, dark blue above, bound with gold; gold cap-cord and epaulettes (privates woollen); green drooping feather plume; dark blue shabrack, with gold name-cypher and trimming; tiger-skin saddle-cover, bound with gold lace; head-stall of light calf-skin. Fig. 7, private of 9th lancers. Arms as above. Uniform: dark blue jacket with crimson collar, cuffs, and skirt facings, and gold lace; dark blue pantaloons, with crimson stripes; yellow girdle and buttons, yellow epaulettes, white belts, and cap-cord; cap black below, with gold sun, red above, with blue, white, and red drooping feather plume; black sabretache; blue shabrack, with gold trimmings, and saddle-cover of sheepskin; head-stall black.

The artillery consists of 9 battalions of foot artillery, each of 8 companies, and one brigade light artillery, of 7 companies; to these the rocket corps is to be added. The arms are: for the foot artillery, a short sabre, for the light, sabre and pistols. Uniform: blue, with red collars and yellow cords, black belts, and white shakos.

The engineer corps consists of 11 colonels, 26 lieutenant colonels, 80 captains, and 106 lieutenants. To this belong also the royal staff corps (pioneers and pontoniers) and the royal sappers and miners, altogether 11 companies.

The Turkish Military System

V. Plate 23: Turkish Troops
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The Turkish is probably the oldest of all standing armies, for even in the year 1328, when the Ottoman Empire received its earliest laws and form of government from Aladdin, the establishment of a standing army was one of the objects to which this lawgiver directed his chief attention; and this army arose, therefore, not less than 100 years before Charles VII., whom we have hitherto regarded as the founder of standing armies. The organization at that time was like the Roman, with Decurions, Centurions, and chiefs of a thousand, and besides these, Jaga or Piade, footmen, the Jeni Tscheri (new troops, Janizaries) were created, who were to consist entirelv of Christian children who had been forcibly converted to Islamism. These formed afterwards the flower of the army. The Piades were disbanded, and received land in fee, with the obligation to keep the military roads in order in time of war; they were therefore pioneers, and their name, with their office, has passed into European warfare. The irregular troops were called Asab (light), and the cavalry of the same Akindschi (runners on horses), and formed predatory, skirmishing, and foraging parties. The Jeni Tscheri (Janizaries; pl. 23, fig. 1, shows an officer; and fig. 2, a private) formed four bodies, after the manner of the banner guard which the Caliph Omar established for the protection of the holy standard (fig. 3), and which consisted of 2400 men. Soliman the Great increased this by 4000 men, namely, 1000 Spahis (horsemen), 1000 Silidhare, mounted militia (fig. 6), 1000 Ulufedschi, mercenaries, Chatis (fig. 5), and 1000 Ghureba, strangers (fig. 3), Arabs from the region about Acre, who were disposed, in four bodies, to the right and left of the holy standard, and formed the body-guard and escort of the Sultan. Besides the paid Spahis, there was formed afterwards an unpaid (feoffee) cavalry, the Mosseliman (freed). The troops were under commanders called Baschi, Pasha (fig. 4), who were Szubaschi when they commanded 100, Bimbaschi when they commanded 1000, and when more than 1000, were Sandshack-begs (Princes of the Standard). In the campaign of Szigeth, Soliman had 48,316 men, whose pay amounted to 52,818 ducats. The marines were similarly organized. An admiral had the chief command, under whom were one or more vice-admirals (fig. 7); then followed the ship captains (fig. 8), the marine officers (fig. 9), and the marines (fig. 10). The troops were carefully trained in war and in peace; gymnastic exercises particularly were very much practised, all of them designed to give the soldiers that remarkable agility and dexterity for which in earlier times these troops were ever distinguished. Among these warlike games, which even in camp were still practised, we may mention, for the footmen, the Tomak, game of Itsch Oglau (pl. 24, fig. 4), in which the object was to strike an antagonist with a ball fastened to the end of a long cord, while he sought to avoid the blow, to seize the hostile ball, and strike his opponent with his own For the cavalry there was the Djerid, game of the Djindis (pl. 24, fig. 5), in which each sought to hit his antagonist, while at full speed, with a wooden staffer blunt javelin, and each strove to avoid the blow for himself by dexterous movements of the body or of the horse, and with his own djerid to hit his opponent. The djerid, when once thrown, had to be picked up again from the ground without alighting from the horse, and at full speed.

Since the time of Mahmoud II., the Turkish government has been constantly striving to perfect its military system, and bring the Turkish army nearer and nearer to the European organization. At the death of Mahmoud II., the army consisted of 50,000 regular troops. To these could be added 109,700 men of the reserve (Retif), which they had sought to form after the manner of the Prussian. In the year 1843 these Retifs were disbanded, and in their stead more regular regiments were formed. Besides these there were, in 1829, 10,000 Topdschis, or artillerists, after the old mode, miners (Laghumdschiller), bombardiers (Kumharegdschiller), and 5,000 Spahis, and other irregular troops. These, with the exception of the Spahis, yet exist, and by means of them the army can be increased to 200,000 men. The irregular troops are arranged in squads of 60 men, under command of Boluk Baschis; they arm themselves, the infantry with muskets without bayonets, and short sabres; sometimes, also, a small iron cuirass, inlaid with gold, silver, or copper. The cavalry consists mostly of Asiatics; they have long muskets and Turkish sabres, and their mode of fighting is the modern Greek. For attacks in line they are unfit. Since 1840, the following improvements have found place in the regular army, after the doing away with the reserve. Eight new infantry regiments have been formed, and the artillery so increased, that two guard and four line-infantry regiments were stationed in Constantinople, and the present strength of the standing army can be put at 100,000 men.

V. Plate 24: Scenes from Turkish Military Life
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The Seraskier commands the army; the Guard, which is independent of this, is commanded by a Beglerbeg Vizier, with the title Muschirci Esakirsi Chassai. For the cavalry and the infantry, the French tactic; for the artillery, the Prussian is used. The infantry is called Piade, the cavalry Suvarri, the artillery Topdschi. The general of an army corps, or General-in-Chief, is called Muschir, or Pasha of Three Horse Tails; pl. 24, fig. 2, is a view of the encampment of a Pasha of Three Tails, as it was in 1840. In the foreground is seen the Pasha (fig. 3) with his suite, to whom the bodyguard pays the usual honors. The divisions are called Feriks, and the chiefs of divisions Feriki Pashas of Two Tails. A brigadier general, Liwa Pasha (fig. 1), bears one tail. The regiment is called Alai; its colonel, Mir Alai, has under him a lieutenant colonel, Kaimakan Beg. Each regiment consists of four battalions (Tabur), each under a major (Bim Baschi, commander of a thousand). The battalion has eight companies, of which four are always marksmen. The company is commanded by a captain (Jus Baschi, commander of one hundred), and is divided into ten squads, each under a non-commissioned officer (On Baschi). The sergeant (Utsch Baschi) has two On Baschi under him. In the infantry each company has two lieutenants (Mulassim); in the cavalry four. The rank and file are called Nefer, the music Mehterchane. The armament is European; the infantry have bayonet-muskets, the subaltern officers sabres like the German, the staff-officers the old Turkish sabre. The cavalry have lances fourteen feet in length, with red pennons, sabres, and two pistols; the saddles are a combination of Hungarian and English, with German stirrups; blue shabracks with red binding. The uniform is dark-blue, with red collar. Privates and non-commissioned and subaltern officers wear jackets, corded with red, for the cavalry. The guard has breast-facings, with gold lace. Besides this, there are other cavalry, whose dress approaches nearer to the old Mussulman garb. The head-covering is, with few exceptions, the Turkish red fez, with blue tassels. The pantaloons are blue, very full, with red stripes (gold for officers); in summer grey linen. A part of the cavalry has full white pantaloons, with high boots; but, with this exception, the dress for the feet consists of shoes and socks. Up to this time only officers wear stocks; the staff-officers wear capotes, with red collars. All in authority are distinguished by a crescent and star suspended on the breast; generals and staff-officers have them of diamonds, distinguished from one another by size and position; on the subaltern officers they are of gold, and for the non-commissioned silver. The staff-officers wear at present full gold epaulettes, the generals with bouillons. Belts black; the waist belt with brass plate. The officers have red, the non-commissioned officers white baldrics, worked with gold. Except on service, no weapon is carried usually. The liability to service is general, and the period five years. Pl. 23, fig. 11, is an officer of guard-cavalry; fig. 12, an artillery officer; fig. 13, an infantry soldier; and fig. 14, shows officers of the regular line-infantry; fig. 15, a non-commissioned officer of the Egyptian heavy cavalry; figs. 16 and 17, men of the Egyptian light cavalry.

The Various Kinds of Arms

For the better understanding of various weapons, parts of dress, and army-implements, we have brought together a great number of such objects on pl. 25.

V. Plate 25: Illustrating the Various Kinds of Arms of the Mid-Nineteenth Century
Engraver: Schmeissinger
  1. Cutting weapons:
    1. cavalry swords; fig. 18a, French heavy cavalry sword, pattern of 1803, with iron scabbard; the blade (fig. 18b) has two grooves, and is ground to a point obliquely from the edge to the back; the cross section of the same, with a view of the hilt and basket seen from above, is shown in fig. 18c. This is also the sword of the Austrian heavy cavalry. The French heavy cavalry sword pattern of 1816 (fig. 19a) has likewise an iron scabbard; the blade (fig. 19b) has also a double gutter (fig. 19c), but it is ground to a point from both sides; hilt and basket (fig. 19c) are like the first also, but somewhat slighter. This sword is carried also by the Prussian heavy cavalry. The French heavy cavalry sword, pattern of 1822, the newest pattern (fig. 20a), has also an iron scabbard, but is somewhat longer, and the blade (figs. 20b, 20c) is slightly curved to the back; the grooves, also, are narrower, whereby the cutting wedge, which before was very blunt, becomes sharper. The basket (fig. 20c) is made stronger below,
    2. Curved sabres: the sabre of the French light cavalry, pattern of 1803 (fig. 21a), has an iron scabbard, and is very heavy; the blade (fig. 21b, 21c) has one broad groove, tapers somewhat sharply to the point, and is strongly curved backwards. The hilt (fig. 21c) has three strong bows and no stool, and the gripe has a rivet through the tang. The same blade, but with a single bow instead of the basket, is used by the Prussian light cavalry; the sabre, too, is somewhat lighter. The French light cavalry sabre, pattern of 1816 (fig. 22a), has an iron scabbard, the blade (fig. 22b and 22c) is strongly curved backwards, but has no groove, only a round back and sharply wedge-shaped edge. The hilt (fig. 22c) is something lighter than the preceding, has a stool, and the gripe is rather straighter. The same sabre, pattern of 1822 (fig. 23a), with iron scabbard, has a strongly curved blade (fig. 23b and 23c) with narrow groove, broad back, and bluntly wedge-shaped edge. The hilt (fig. 23c) has no cross-guard, but the stool round behind. The officers’ sabres (figs. 24 and 25) are lighter, have no basket, but only a simple bow and a more elegant gripe. The blades are mostly after the form in fig. 21c, or fig. 23c, or even entirely smooth,
    3. Infantry sabres: The common infantry sabre (fig. 15) is in a leather scabbard, little curved, the blade often without grooves, flat wedge-shaped edge, the hilt furnished only with a brass bow and cross-guard, and is carried in this form by most armies; the French army, on the contrary, has adopted in modern times a two-edged infantry sword (fig. 17), resembling the ancient Greek, and called “poignard-sabre” from its being more like a dagger than a sword. The French artillery sabre (pl. 25, fig. 16a) is very short, straight, and the blade (fig. 16b) with peculiar grooves, has a very heavy tang, in order that the sabre may be used not only as a weapon but also as an intrenching tool. The yatagan (fig. 26), which the expedition to Algiers has brought into the French army, is a dagger-like sabre, with double curved blade about two feet long, the gripe without cross-guard.
  2. Thrusting weapons,
    1. The lance. The old French lance (fig. 13), pattern of 1812, has a head quadrangular below and running out in a long quadrangular pyramid to a point; this is put upon the staff without any prongs. Much better than this is the pattern of 1823 (fig. 14) with long prongs, and this, with slight variations, is the one used by other armies,
    2. The bayonet. The most ancient form of this (fig. 5) is merely a lance-head, which was stuck into the musket barrel by its wooden staff. Afterwards came a bayonet (fig. 6) with curved neck and three-sided, reed-shaped blade, which was slipped on to the barrel by a slit socket and turned so as to catch against a stud on the same, which prevented its being pulled off. The modern bayonet (fig. 7) has a long, triangular, hollowed, straight blade, arched neck, and is fixed over a rivet, then turned in and fastened by the bayonet catch. The bayonet for the percussion-musket (fig. 11) has only one thick, ring-formed projection, over which the hook of the bayonet-spring (which is fastened to the stock) catches. The blade is very long, three-edged, flat, and sharp pointed. Two bayonets of different forms, the so-called sabre-bayonets, are shown in fig. 12.
  3. Projectile weapons,
    1. Muskets. Fig. 1 is the common infantry musket with flint lock, as now used where the percussion-musket (fig. 8) is not adopted. A somewhat larger kind of percussion arm is the wall-piece (fig. 9a), which has a rifled bore and throws a two ounce ball; it is designed for the defence of forts. The French artillery have a shorter musket (fig. 2), a kind of carbine with a flint lock, and a long bayonet. The cavalry have carbines (fig. 3) with flint locks and a bow, in the ring of which the carbine hook is fastened. The riflemen and light infantry have grooved rifles (fig. 9b) with percussion locks and hair triggers, on which, instead of the common bayonet, the rifle sword-bayonet is fixed and held fast by the bayonet-spring, serving both for cut and thrust. The old cavalry pistol (fig. 4 a b) was very short in the bore and long-stocked, with the flint lock; the modern is short-stocked (fig. 10), longer in barrel, often rifled, and has the percussion lock.
  4. Defensive arms. The cuirass (fig. 27) which with little variation is used for the heavy cavalry of all armies, consists of a front and a back piece, either of steel or brass, polished or painted black, held together at the bottom by means of straps and at the top by the shoulder-bands. Where only the breast-plate is used, it is fastened by cross straps, which pass obliquely over the back. Of head coverings we find on pl. 25:
    1. Helmets. The Prussian Garde du Corps (fig. 30); Cuirassiers of the Guard (fig. 29); Dragoon Guard (fig. 32); Line Infantry (fig. 41); French Cuirassiers (fig. 28); Carbiniers (fig. 31).
    2. Shakos. The French Hussars (fig. 33); Chasseurs (fig. 37); Artillery (fig. 38); Line Infantry (fig. 39); African Light Infantry (fig. 40); the Prussian Hussar cap (fig. 35), that for the 1st Regiment of Body Hussars,1 which bears as a distinction the silver death’s-head.
  5. Knapsacks and Belts. The manner of packing the clothing and necessaries of the soldier in the field is seen by the knapsack of the French Line Infantry (fig. 42), of the Prussian Infantry (fig. 43), of the Prussian Artillery (fig. 45), and the Prussian Pioneers (fig. 44). Of belts and equipments, fig. 60 gives the cartridge-box of the French Light Cavalry (right side) and the baldric and shoulder-belt of the French Light Infantry (left side); fig. 34, the sabretache of the French, and fig. 36, of the Prussian Hussars.
  6. Drums and Music. Figs. 46 and 47 are field-drums with brass shells and wooden hoops, painted in toothed chequer-work according to the colors of the cockade. Figs. 48 and 49 are cavalry trumpets, fig. 50 a bugle-horn, and fig. 51 a trombone.
  7. Colors and Standards. Fig. 52 shows the French eagle, as it was in the time of the Emperor. Fig. 53, the Prussian eagle. Fig. 57 is the color of the German Empire, of black, red, and yellow, cross striped, and with the black eagle of the empire in a yellow field in the centre; fig. 55 is the German imperial standard, in black, red, and yellow, cross striped: both are trimmed with gold fringe and have cords and tassels of black, red, and gold. Fig. 56 is the French color, blue, white, and red, striped perpendicularly, with blue, white, and red bands and gold fringe. Instead of a head the Gallic cock in gold is placed on the top of the staff. The French standard is precisely the same, only smaller (fig. 54). The English color (fig. 58) is of white silk, and has usually on one side the arms of England and the Star of the Garter, and on the other a laurel wreath, with the name of the battles in which the regiment bearing the color has distinguished itself. Cords, tassels, and fringes are of gold. There is here, however, the greatest diversity. The color of the United States of America is cross striped red and white, with gold fringe and tassels.

Military Gymnastics

Indispensable requisites for a good soldier are, great activity, precision, and dexterity in all his movements. The ordinary exercises, however, are entirely insufficient to effect this physical training, being directed principally to the carriage of the person, the motions in rank and file, and the management of the weapons. In order, therefore, to render the soldier agile and to increase his strength and muscle, the practice of gymnastics, upon which the Greeks and Romans formerly laid great stress, has now been made one of the objects of military instruction, and reduced to a species of system, as found most applicable to the wants of war service. Plates 26, 27, and 28, contain the principal exercises of military gymnastics.

V. Plate 26: Illustrating Military Gymnastics
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The first exercises of gymnastics relate to the right positions of foot, knee, hip, shoulders, arms, head, and the whole body in place; to render the limbs movable and maintain the body in equilibrium; upon which follow the staff and ball exercises, to strengthen the muscles of the breast, arm, and spine. The wheeling exercises which succeed these have for object to maintain the good carriage of the body, once acquired, in all directions, and that the wheelings should be made rapidly and with precision; for which purpose the exercises are continued in advancing, marching, and running, as well in straight line as in zigzag and curve, singly and in rank and file. The next exercises are in leaping, partly free, partly with the leaping-pole, the leap in length, the leap in height, and the leap in depth, and then the swinging or vaulting. The leaps on to and over the vaulting-horse are divided into longitudinal and cross leaps, the first from behind, the last from one side. At first the effort is only to complete the leap by the assistance of the hand, afterwards without touching with the hands. One of the most remarkable leaps is the back leap (pl. 26, fig. 6), where the leaper clears the saddle by a running jump, resting both hands upon the cantles; in rising the legs are stretched wide with the toes pointed outwards, so that one leg passes over the crupper, the other over the neck of the horse, without touching him; the hands then let go the cantles, and the descent is made with the legs closed together, the back towards the horse. If it is desired to render the leap still more complicated, the half-turn can be made at the same time, bringing the face towards the horse in alighting. Very difficult also are the half and whole thief’s leap. The half thief’s leap (pl. 26, fig. 7) is made by a run directly towards the saddle, then at the distance of a half to two paces from it, springing up with the left foot alone, bringing the right shoulder by a turn directly over the middle of the saddle, the well extended right leg, with the toes pointed forwards, raised so high as to clear it entirely, and ending in the saddle. The right leg must not be swung over the crupper, but must go directly forwards; the hands are not rested and must not touch the horse, so that it is sometimes made holding at the same time one or two flags or muskets. In the full thief’s leap, the spring is made also on the left foot alone, but in rising the right is brought up as well and the leaper passes entirely over the saddle, without touching it, and comes down on the other side of the horse. This leap also is made with flags or muskets, and the half turn can be made in it likewise, so that in alighting the face is towards the horse.

After vaulting come bathing and swimming, in which the soldier is practised not merely in the ordinary swimming and treading water, but also in swimming with the full equipment and carrying the weapons, in exercising and firing while in the water, in riding upon the swimming horse in rank and file, and is taught also how to proceed in rescuing persons from drowning.

So soon as these exercises are completed they pass to the beam on the ground, the balancing beam, and the hanging beam. The first exercises only teach the man to preserve his equilibrium, even under the most difficult circumstances, and not to lose at the same time the proper carriage of the body. But when the soldier comes upon the balancing beam, he is raised above the ground, and must, in the beginning, maintain his equilibrium by means of his outstretched arms, until after a time he learns to keep it with his arms folded, is even able to step over objects held in front of him, or to stoop down and remove things which are lying upon the beam (fig. 1), and at the end of the beam to turn round, or to go backwards and pass another person on the beam. Then follow exercises in balancing on one foot with the other hanging down (fig. 2), changing the feet and thus moving forward, and finally exercising with the musket upon the beam (fig. 3), which, of course, is placed higher and higher as the men acquire greater confidence. Last comes marching with the whole equipment upon the beam (fig. 4), at first when supported, and finally when suspended from ropes at each end of the hanging beam.

The exercises in climbing are very various. The men climb first upon a rope ladder with wooden rungs, then on the common rope ladder (fig. 15) carried obliquely to the beam; this climbing is at first with both hands and feet, afterwards with the hands alone. Then come exercises upon the free hanging rope with wooden rungs inserted; then on a rope which has only knots instead of rungs (fig. 16), and finally on the smooth rope (fig. 17); all of these exercises being made also with the hands alone, the feet hanging free. The final exercise in rope-climbing is climbing between two loose hanging ropes, using the hands alone (fig. 18), and on the rope stretched obliquely (fig. 32), in which, at first, to guard against accident, particularly where the climber is using the hands alone, an assistant is employed (fig. 33), who supports the climber by means of a rope passing over a roller. The same exercises are made also between two ropes stretched in the same manner. Then begins climbing on the ladder-pole, an upright pole through which rungs are inserted in the ladder form, or in a spiral line, and this leads to climbing on the smooth pole, of 5 to 7 inches in diameter (fig. 19), which is grasped by the hands, one above the other, and at the same time between the calf of one leg and the shin-bone and ankle joint of the other. The beam elevated on posts is crossed by the climber, either sitting upon it, as on a horse (fig. 28), or crosswise (fig. 30), and moving forwards by the use of one or both hands; in this exercise the climber has two ropes, fastened to rings on a girdle round his waist and passing on each side of the beam to the ground, where they are held by two men, to support him in case he loses his balance (figs. 29, 31). These exercises can also be made hanging, or in other positions, as for example in fig. 38. Climbing on a ladder with movable rungs is a peculiar exercise. The ladder (fig. 20) consists of two ladder rails, which are grooved on the inner side, so that the rungs can be shoved up and down between the two rails; in the middle hangs a rope passing through holes in the rungs and having a knot for each rung to rest upon: the climber clasps the ladder-rails with his arms, and ascends the rungs with his feet by their assistance. The common ladder is mounted while standing obliquely, at first with both hands, then with the face turned outwards and the hands resting on the ladder behind the back, then only one hand is used, while something is carried in the other, and finally the ladder is ascended and descended without the use of the hands at all (pl. 26, figs. 13, 23). In this assistants are required at first (figs. 14 and 22), who keep hold of a rope, which passes over a roller and is fastened to the waist of the climber, before or behind, to preserve his equilibrium. These exercises can be variously modified; as, for instance, by two persons passing each other on the ladder; by ascending on the front and descending on the back; by overreaching one rung; by ascending and descending on the inside, and at last with the hands alone, the body hanging free in the air (fig. 25); or with hands and feet on the same rung at once (jumping). In all these last exercises an assistant is required at first (fig. 27), with a rope, which sustains in part the weight of the body, until the muscles of the arms have attained the necessary strength. To this class belongs also the mounting and descending a ladder carrying a load on the back and without the use of the hands (fig. 24) with the aid of an assistant (fig. 26). The last of the climbing exercises is mounting the perpendicular ladder (fig. 21) and descending on the other side, after passing round the ladder-rail at the top; this may be done also with the hands alone, after sufficient practice. The next exercise is climbing a wall by means of small orifices made for the purpose. In a wall openings are made six inches long and four high, and from six to eight inches distant from each other; the climber places his hands and feet in these alternately, and thus mounts or descends the wail (fig. 40g). To these exercises belongs also the mounting a wall by means of the pyramid; the representation of this in fig. 8 explains, better than words, how, by means of a pyramid of twelve persons, the thirteenth is brought in position to surmount the upper angle of a wall from twenty to twenty-two feet high; if the wall is lower then two, six, or more men are sufficient, as shown in fig. 40 e, f. It is necessary always to take care that in the lower stages only the strongest men are placed. Fig. 40 shows the various applications of exercises in climbing to passing rivers and mounting walls. Narrow ditches are over-leaped without assistance; wider ones by means of the leaping-pole; if still wider and there are strong beams to lay over them, they are crossed as in a, a; if the beams are weaker, with the body in a horizontal position, as b, b, silting aside or crosswise, as c, c, or a rope can be stretched across and fastened to a higher point on the opposite side, upon which men then clamber over, as at d, d. A wall can be scaled by means of the pyramid (e, e) of more or fewer men, according to the height (f f, k); or by the climbing-holes (g, g); or by the knotted rope (h h), or the rope ladder (i i). When the top is reached, the descent on the other side (fig. 41) is made by leaping down from small elevations, or else knotted ropes or rope-ladders are fastened to props or hooks, and the men climb or are lowered down by these.

Corporal Exercises

These are designed to give greater flexibility to the body; they consist, first, of exercises in running and swinging with a rope, which fastened to an elevated point at one end is outstretched by the man who holds it at the other going backwards until he just touches the ground with his toes; in this position the running in a circle and various other running and swinging exercises are performed. Another of these exercises is the swinging over a ditch or river; a frame is erected on one bank of a height proportionate to the breadth of the stream (fig. 5), and in this a hook is fixed, from which hang two ropes; the man who desires to leap over the stream steps upon a somewhat elevated platform (fig. 9), takes one of the ropes and holds it so that the end hangs loose over his back, while he grasps the rope with both hands outstretched and leans backwards as far as possible; he then lifts his feet and thus leaves his standing-place (fig. 11) swinging pendulum-like forward to the other side of the obstacle, upon reaching which he lets go of the rope and goes on his way (fig. 10), the rope falling back again to the side whence he came (fig. 12). The second rope serves for another man.

Exercises of the bars and the horizontal pole form a very important part of these corporal exercises. The bar on which the first is made consists of two beams fixed upon posts not very far apart, and in such a manner that they can be raised or lowered according to the height of the exercisers. The exercises are various. The horizontal pole is a peculiar apparatus, which is represented on the right hand side, upper part, of pl. 26. Of the numerous exercises upon this we shall mention only the under-grip (fig. 34), in which the pole is grasped by the hands in such a manner that both thumbs are not turned to the same side, but away from each other and outwards, while the hands seize the pole on the outside and from below upwards; in this position the hand-hang is practised. The knee-hang is shown (fig. 39), and can also be made with one knee while the other is swung over the pole or hangs below it. The hang-recumbent (fig. 38) is executed by seizing the pole with both hands and swinging the body forwards and upwards, passing at the same time the right leg over the pole, then dropping the hold with the left hand, slipping the right arm over the pole to the elbow, and so remaining suspended at length by the right elbow and right knee. The side seat (fig. 35) can be so executed that one hand is before, the other behind the body. From this position many turnings and other exercises can be performed. The side-hold (fig. 36) is when both hands are rested upon the pole and the body sustained upon them with the face or back towards the pole; from this position draw-climbing, lifting, bracing, and winding are executed. When the man lifts himself by the side-hold and then turns slowly over backwards, without any violent swing (fig. 37), so that the balls of both feet come to the ground together, it is called the back-drop. There are various other exercises, the particular mention of which would occupy too much space.


At first the science of fencing united both cut and thrust in one method, but as the art became more highly improved the two were divided, and each was taught and practised as a separate art.

V. Plate 27: Illustrating Military Fencing
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The art of fighting by the thrust alone (fencing proper) teaches so to use the weapon, according to certain fixed and calculated principles, as to defend ourself from the attacks of an enemy with the small-sword alone and inflict wounds upon him. In fencing for practice the foil is used, for earnest the small-sword. This sword (pl. 27, fig. 1a) consists of a blade (b) of the best steel, which is either two-edged (a) or three-edged (c); the tang which is inserted into the gripe is six inches long; the blade is divided (fig. 2b) into four parts from the hilt (a b), namely, the forte, the half-forte, the foible, and half-foible, each being exactly \(\frac{1}{4}\) of the blade. The hilt (fig. 1a) has a stool, a cross-guard gripe, bow, and pommel. The German foil (fig. 2a) is oblong in cross-section, and has a button at the point which is covered, and the gripe has a stool. The French foil (fig. 3) has instead of the stool a “brille” with fore-leather, or else only a cross-guard (fig. 4). The fencing-gloves (fig. 5 a and b) are on the outside of double leather and stuffed over the wrist, on the inside of thin single leather; for the teacher the gloves must be thickly wadded (fig. 6 a and b), and he has also, since the pupil must make all thrusts home, a plastron (fig. 7) of leather, upon which the aim for the thrust is marked right and left. The mask (fig. 8) is of strong wire and protects the face in practice. The extension of action is with the right foot forward and the right knee slightly bent, while the body rests upon the left leg, the knee of which is also slightly bent towards the left hand side; the left breast is turned away and the upper part of the body presented sideways to the antagonist; the right arm is easily extended holding the foil with the point on a level with the eyes of the opponent, the left arm is held up in a curved position so as to bring the opened hand about four inches higher than the head (pl. 27, fig. 14). This is the extension of guard. Fig. 15b is the position of thrust; but the passage, a passing to the attack with the left hand, is shown in fig. 23a. The passage can be made backwards also, to permit the lunge of the antagonist to pass by and then disarm him by a strong battement. The engagement can be made close, medium, and wide. The medium engagement is the most common (fig. 14), and in this the blades bind in the middle of their “foible,” so that in the lunge the heart of the antagonist can be reached. The engagement, once taken, must be maintained even during the vaultings, when the place is changed in a circle to the right or left. The movements of the hand, from which the thrusts originate, are simple. The first, prime (fig. 10) is the simplest and least fatiguing and forms the extension; in the second, seconde (fig. 11), the little finger is above, the thumb below, the fingers on the outside; the third, tierce (fig. 12), turns the hand in the quarter circle so that the fingers are below, the knuckles upwards, but the thumb directed inwards; the fourth, quarte (fig. 13), is the reverse of the preceding. These motions must be industriously practised in rapid succession. The thrusts are either high (fig. 9a) under the eye; middle or chief thrusts (fig. 9b) at the middle of the right breast; or low (fig. 9c) at the right side of the lower body above the hip. High thrusts are middle thrusts only with the point of the foil a little more elevated; thrusts below the hip are irregular and generally forbidden. The thrust in prime is from the motion of prime (fig. 15b), is seldom given, and serves more for extension, as it is not easy to thrust with the hand high and point low; its mark is the breast, or for high prime the face. The thrust in seconde (fig. 16a) divides into the seconde inside, which is made under the blade at the lower body, and the outside seconde, which is made at the same point but over the blade; both are seldom delivered. The thrust in tierce (fig. 17b), from the motion of tierce, must be delivered quick and strong, whereby the whole forte of your own blade engages the foible of your antagonist’s; it is delivered over the arm on the outer side of the opponent; tierce inside is impracticable. High tierce aims at the face. The thrust in quarte is from the motion of quarte, and is the one most used. Quarte inside passes within the blade at the breast (fig. 18b); high quarte, whether inside or outside, at the face. Low quarte aims at the lower body (fig. 19a) and is given inside; delivered on the outside it is called quarte-reverse, whereby one engages the whole foible of his opponent’s blade with the whole forte of his own, presses it down, passes over it to the outside, or sometimes from the outside to the in, and then, with a turn of the wrist to the blade of the antagonist, thrusts at his side. The parades or parries are either flying or short, or stroke-parades, contre-parades, battements, and ligades. The short parades are: prime parade (fig. 15a), made against prime and tierce; quarte inside and outside, by a short pressure with the whole forte of the blade upon the whole foible of the antagonist’s. Seconde parade (fig. 16b) is a twisting of the hand from the prime-motion into the seconde-motion, and goes against outside and inside seconde. The tierce parade (fig. 17a) is a twisting of the hand out of the prime into the tierce motion, and with it are parried outside prime, tierce, and outside quarte. The quarte parade (fig. 18a) is a quick, strong turning of the hand from the prime motion to the quarte motion, whereby the arm must be stretched and ready for thrust. After the parade, however, the hand goes rapidly back to the prime position. With this parade inside prime and quarte are caught, while the hand at the same time is moved somewhat sideways; also tierce and outside quarte by a slight pressure to the outside, and low quarte (fig. 19b) by sinking the hand and point of the blade somewhat. All these are called stroke-parades, in which with the whole forte of your own blade you bind the whole foible of your antagonist’s, then slide lightly up it to the forte, thus forcing it some distance out of direction. As by this means an opening is at once made, so the after-thrust must immediately follow. Stroke-parade, however, must never degenerate into a blow, else you yourself leave an opening. Contre-parades arise when you go round your adversary’s blade; a light stroke-parade may also be united with them. They are only in quarte, tierce, and seconde. The battement is a strong stroke-parade, with which an antagonist is usually disarmed if he do not hold his foil firmly, or at least an opening is made. There are quarte, tierce, and seconde battements, which are made from the corresponding motions, and parry the thrusts in the manner of the corresponding light parades. Ligades are battements in which at the conclusion you pass from one motion into another, and thereby twist your antagonist’s sword from his hand, or at least force from him an opening, which you instantly make use of by an after-thrust.

In the teaching of fencing the blades are first engaged or bound, that is, in the prime-motion, laid softly against the blade of the antagonist, on the inside or outside. Then the thrusts and parades are shown and made, at first by “times,” afterwards at will. The pupil is shown also how to pass from the parade to the after-thrust and the contre-parade. Next follow the feints. To feint is to make the mere show of a thrust, so as to mislead the antagonist into the parade and thereby obtain on the opposite side an opening for a real thrust. There are single, double, triple, and finally stroke-feints. The last consists in binding with the forte of your own blade the foible of your antagonist’s, sliding briskly up that, making feint outside or inside, and passing instantly to the thrust for which an opening may present. Time and stop-thrusts are such as are given at the instant when the antagonist, purposing a thrust, makes too much or irregular preparation for it. An example of a stop-thrust (when the antagonist is permitted to deliver) is the following: If we perceive that our antagonist delivers his thrusts mostly over our arm, we wait for the moment when such a thrust is to follow (pl. 27, fig. 20a), set the left foot, while the left knee is straightened as far back as possible, extend the right arm, twist the hand “en seconde,” and so let the antagonist deliver (fig. 20b), keeping down the head somewhat that the hostile thrust may pass over it. Counter-thrust is the application of all that has been taught at the discretion of the pupil, and shows whether he has understood it well or not. Hereby various artifices come in play. Thus, for example, instead of a battement or ligade one may disarm his antagonist when he has thrust tierce (fig. 23 a b), by making a passade with the left foot (stepping in) and seizing his wrist at the same time with the left hand, while with the blade in the right the hostile weapon is pressed down or battered. Or, when the antagonist has delivered in quarte (fig. 24 a b), bind the quarte thrust with counter-tierce, making the passade with the left foot, force up with the left hand the right hand of the opponent, and set your sword at his breast. Or the so-called theatre-thrust (fig. 25 a b), if the opponent thrusts en seconde, press with the flat of the left hand his blade away from your breast so that it passes by on the right, while your own blade goes round below it. The left foot makes the passade, the left hand forces up the opponent’s right, his blade passing under your left arm and bringing up your own blade again, by a curve, you thrust quarte. A parade-position for combatants is the following (fig. 21 a b): The opponent thrusts quarte, you let the thrust in, draw up the left foot to the heel of the right and take up the point of his sword with the flat of your left hand, while your right brings your own weapon under and across the forte of his, so that it can be forced into a curve. It is well in all cases for the teacher, in the beginning, to carry the blade of the pupil to its place. For example, the pupil delivers quarte, you let the thrust in (fig. 22 a b), draw up the left foot to the heel of the right, bring the left hand flat on the breast where the pupil’s point should hit, and lay your blade under that of the pupil to give his hand the right direction.

Cut-and-thrust, a German exercise, teaches how to use a cutting weapon according to fixed rules deduced from calculation and experience, so as to defend yourself and injure your adversary. The weapon for this is the cut-and-thrust sword (or the broadsword), which is one or two edged, and broader and heavier than the small sword. For practice, the cut-and-thrust foil is used (fig. 26), having a blunt blade, and a bell guard and bow to the hilt. The blade is divided, as in the small sword, into forte and foible, and must be so proportioned to the hilt that the point of equilibrium lies about two inches from that. The fighting gloves (fig. 29 a, b) are provided with long gauntlets, are of double leather in the hand, and well stuffed, elsewhere of single buckskin; the gauntlets standing up around the wrists, must be of very thick buckskin, double, and not too wide. The mask (fig. 28) is very strong, of wire, and stuffed all around the frame. The fighting hat (fig. 27) has a brim four inches wide, which is drawn down at the sides by strings. The best extension is shown at fig. 34 a, b. The left foot stands perpendicular to the fighting line (the fixed foot), the right (step foot) about eighteen inches forward and from seven to nine inches out of the line. The right leg stands perpendicular, the left is stretched, and the weight of the body rests most upon this; the lower body is drawn back; the breast presented to the antagonist, the right shoulder a little advanced. The left arm lies, with the hand turned outwards, upon the back. Fig. 31 shows the holding of the blade. The arm is raised stretched, until the hand is at the height of the shoulder; if the opponent is the tallest, the extension must be somewhat higher, and lower if the reverse. The point of the blade is opposite the opponent’s right eye. Arm and blade must form a very obtuse angle, and the blade be always lightly bound with that of the antagonist. In the delivery, the step foot is set forward, but not slid; the giving back for defence also must be equally by a step. In cut-and-thrust fighting there are also vaultings and steppings in. The engagement is also threefold, close, medium, and wide; the medium (fig. 34 a, b) is that where the blades bind in the half foible, and by a moderate stretching of the arm the elbow of the antagonist can be reached; in delivery, his breast. The movements of the hand, or the motions, are: Prime, the back of the hand to the outside, the thumb above. Seconde, the back of the hand to the inside, the thumb under; the cuts from this motion are the most difficult. Tierce, the back of the hand uppermost; the cuts herefrom go to the right side. In quarte, the back of the hand lies underneath, and the cuts go to the left side of the opponent. As to the cuts, you suppose yourself opposite the fist of the sword-arm of your opponent, and on the same level with this a middle point, to which all cuts are carried. If you desire to cut close and fine, then the circle for this middle point is small, and confined merely to the sword-arm of the antagonist (fig. 31). Then prime comes from a, seconde from b, tierce from c, quarte from d, steep quarte from e, steep tierce from g, seconde outside from f, and the inside seconde or Polish quarte from h. If, however, you imagine the central point upon the breast of your opponent (fig. 30), with the lines in the figure running through it, then you find there the same cuts, and if you conceive besides a horizontal line through the nose and another through the hips, then high tierce falls from l, and low from m, high quarte from i, and low from k. Figs. 32 and 33 are frames upon which the cuts are delivered according to the above delineation, and towards which the pupil learns to give them in the air, before he is made acquainted with the parades, &c.

Prime (fig. 35b) goes from the prime motion short to the sword-arm of the opponent; long, to his head. Seconde (fig. 36a), cut perpendicularly upwards from the motion of seconde, goes short to the forearm, long to the upper arm of the opponent, and must be delivered by the stretched arm and wrist solely. Tierce (fig. 37b), cut short, strikes from the tierce motion the right side of the sword arm, cut long, the right side of the body. Quarte (fig. 38a), from the quarte motion, is exactly the re Averse of the preceding. These four are the chief cuts. The middle cuts are: half or steep quarte (fig. 39a), at the inside of the arm, short; from the left shoulder across the breast, long; the thumb lies sideways uppermost. Half outside seconde (fig. 40b) falls upon the arm, cut short; from without, over the breast upwards; if cut long, a good after cut. The thumb lies obliquely downwards. Steep tierce (fig. 41b), the thumb sideways upwards, and the hand in position of tierce. The cut goes steep to the right side, short upon the arm; long, from the right shoulder obliquely across the breast. Half inside seconde (fig. 42a), the thumb obliquely down sideways, the little finger to the left outwards up. The cut falls, if short, from below upon the inside of the arm; if long, obliquely across the lower body towards the breast. Polish quarte (fig. 43b), on the same line, is only distinguished from the preceding by coming from the motion of quarte. It is unhandy, and the most difficult cut. The four high and low cuts can only be cut long, and are: high quarte (fig. 44a), from the quarte motion, but with the foible raised, from right to left through the face; low quarte (fig. 45a), from the quarte motion, with the foible lowered, from right to left across the lower body; high tierce (fig. 46a), from the tierce motion, exactly the reverse of high quarte; low tierce, from the tierce motion, exactly the reverse of low quarte. The parades (parries) are so made, that, to the cut of your antagonist, the forte of your own blade is always opposed, and the edge on the bow side, so as to receive the cut about half way between the bow and the end of the forte, and thus render it harmless. Prime parade (fig. 35a) is given, without turning the hand, opposite to the cut, and then back to the extension. Seconde parade (fig. 36b) is given with hand advanced, so that the bow, with fingers directed downwards, is pressed down, and the blade turned, edge down, towards the antagonist’s right side, wherefrom you go rapidly back to the extension. Tierce parade (fig. 37a): the bow and the forte of the blade are pushed out of the extension a little towards the right; the foible remains upwards. Quarte parade (fig. 38b) requires that the blade be so held, with hand laid back, that the bow comes on the inside, and the cut falls exactly in the angle of blade and basket. The point is directed towards the antagonist’s right hip, the flat towards his breast. Steep quarte parade (fig. 39b) is like the preceding, only the hand must be held higher, and a sharp counter cut made. Half outside seconde parade (fig. 40a) is the seconde parade, but the guard is pushed somewhat to the outside. Steep tierce parade (fig. 41a) is the tierce parade, but must be pushed upwards and outwards. Half inside seconde parade (fig. 42b) is seconde parade, only the hostile cut must be met from within and underneath. Polish quarte parade (fig. 43a) is so given, with the foible hanging down and the hand somewhat raised, that you can see your antagonist with your right eye through the angle of the bell and back of the blade. High quarte parade (fig. 44b) is made from the quarte motion, with foible somewhat less depending, but must be strongly pushed forward. Low quarte parade (fig. 45b) is the preceding, but more hanging, and sharper pushed. High tierce parade (fig. 46b) is the chief tierce parade, only the bell is more sharply upwards, and you push sideways with the forte of the blade or the bow, whereby you see your antagonist under the blade. In low tierce parade the bell is pushed sideways and downwards to the right. After the teacher has shown the out or assault cuts, after cuts, and double cuts, he passes to the feints. Direct feints are those where the feint and the real cut lie opposite to each other; angle feints, where they lie perpendicular upon each other. In circle feints, the blade goes rapidly over the blade and then under the sword-arm of the antagonist, describes a circle therefore, and then delivers the purposed cut. Time or stop cuts are given in all positions of the hand, and fall at the same instant with the cut of the opponent, if in cutting he uncovers, or makes too much preparation. It is further to be remarked in time cuts, that the body turns away from the opponent as soon as he steps in (pl. 27, fig. 47b), and consequently the right foot steps from its place, as much behind the left as it was before in front of it (passade). Fig. 47a, cuts steep quarte “a tempo” in the passade. Vaultings are used in cut-and-thrust also, whereby the combatants in this movement describe a circle, the diameter of which is always an engagement. In right hand vaultings, the right foot, in short cutting, is set as far sideways as possible; in long cutting, forwards and sideways. The left foot must follow the right. In after cuts, however, the body is brought, by setting the left foot sideways, to extension distance behind the right foot. The right foot goes rapidly over to extension in the standing line of the opponent, or, vaulting wider, forward to a long or short after cut (fig. 48, a, b). After the pupil is finally taught to make the cuts out of succession, he passes to counter-cutting, where attack and defence alternate, and feints, after cuts, double, and time cuts are applied at discretion wherewith the instruction terminates.

V. Plate 28: Practical Exercises in Fencing
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Fencing with the curved sabre must also be practised. To give the mere command of this weapon, these exercises must be made, first upon the fencing bench, as it is called, and afterwards upon horseback, as the movements of the horse have great influence upon the cuts to be delivered, since they change at every moment the position of the antagonists towards each other, and, therefore, the most effective cuts to be chosen. The extension with curved blades is like that for straight, yet the point, though at the height of the eye, lies over the shoulder of the antagonist, and each sees the other with the right eye over and through the angle formed by the two blades. Short after cuts and fine cuts proper are impracticable, because of the backward bent hilt, the curved point, and the gripe without bar; but all other rules for cut-and-thrust are applicable. The chief object of the cavalry soldier must be to gain, by turnings, wheelings, vaultings, &c., the left side of his opponent, and never expose his own. As soon as the man is properly practised in all that relates to the use of the sword on foot, he is permitted to make the cuts in the air on horseback, and, that he may accustom himself to give his blows a definite aim, a mark is set up for him, a head, for example (pl. 28, fig. 2a), at which, first riding sharply up and short parrying (fig. 1), then riding past in full career (fig. 2), he practises the cuts. Then follows the combat between two men in the manner of counter-cut. The best plan here, is first to give the pupils, in lessons, a proper succession of cuts and thrusts, and make them deliver them at the word of command, before leaving them to deliver the cuts at their own choice. Examples of this are: fig. 4a, steep tierce at the flying antagonist, who (fig. 4b) turns backwards and parries tierce; fig. 6a, steep quarte at the approaching opponent, who (fig. 6b) parries steep quarte; fig. 3a, steep tierce at the same when he is in the act of riding past you, whereby he parries steep tierce (fig. 3b); fig. 5b, prime, while riding past the left side of the antagonist, who parries prime (fig. 5a), leaning over to the left. In the combat between lance and sabre, as the first is a thrust weapon, the rules of thrust fencing apply; but all the parades must be very strongly made and pushed forward, which can be done with the less hesitation, as there is no after cut to fear. On the side of the swordsman, however, the after cuts are very effective, as the lancer, after his thrust is parried, can seldom come into position quick enough to give a new thrust. Against the blow with the lance at the head, a very strong prime parade is employed. Lastly, the contest between cavalry and infantry is practised.

The cavalry soldier must further be practised with the lance. The lance, like the cut and thrust weapons, divides into the forte and the foible. The whole forte and the lower part of the lance are called also the queue. In the lance exercise, which must first be made on foot, the pupils are placed with great intervals between them. At the stepping in, the lance is held perpendicularly in the right hand, which lies, with the arm bent, at the height of the shoulder, the butt resting near the right foot (fig. 7). In the ordinary position of the lance under the right arm, and the manœuvres with the same, the feet are placed about eighteen inches apart, the right foot a little advanced (figs. 9, 10); if the lance is brought over the left arm, however, the left foot is set forwards the same distance. The lance-present, as it is called, is made according to fig. 8, whenever the man exercises on foot. The usual position of guard, to which the man must always go back after having delivered a thrust, is with levelled lance. It lies then in equilibrium in the right hand, the queue brought directly under the right shoulder; the thumb lies above and outward on the right side of the shaft, the knuckles under. To make the thrust, the lance is drawn sharply back with the right arm, the hand turning it at the same time, so that the little finger comes uppermost and the thumb under; then the right arm thrusts the lance rapidly forwards at the point of aim upon which the eye is fixed, the arm extending itself to the uttermost, but so that the lance remains always under the right shoulder (pl. 28, fig. 10); the thumb comes uppermost as before, and the thrust being completed, the position of guard is at once resumed. In every thrust, the upper part of the body must stretch a little. To accustom the pupil to aim correctly, and deliver the thrusts with force, he is made to thrust at a leather ball or ring (fig. 11a) suspended for that purpose, at first on foot and stationary, and then at all the various paces of the horse. The thrusts are practised in all directions: in thrusts to the rear the lance is turned in such a manner that the point comes behind and the queue in front, but this wheel-like movement of the lance must take place very quickly, that the lancer may return immediately to the position of defence; all parades (parries) are short blows upon the weapon of the assailant, after which the position of guard is instantly resumed, so as to be in readiness for a new thrust. To whirl the lance (fig. 9) it is swung over the head towards the left hand, so as to lie, with the point directed to the left, in line with the right hand and left upper-arm, the right hand grasping it firmly as before, close in front of the head, the man at the same time turning the head and upper-body in this direction, and then straight to the front. The lance is then swung in the same manner to the right, and brought, with the point to the rear, under the right arm, the head and upper body going at the same time to the left again; the hand hereby is brought to the front, but leaves this position and is turned, so that the thumb is to the front and right, and the fingers on the outside; the swinging to the left arm is then repeated, and the lance finally brought back to the position of guard.

In the combat of lancers with infantry, the bayonets of the latter come into immediate requisition, so that the infantry must be previously trained in all the movements, thrusts, and parries, which can here be employed. Fig. 12 shows the extension and position of guard for the infantry soldier, to which he must always come back as rapidly as possible, whether he has left it for attack or defence. At first, the conflicts between lancers and infantry, divided into systematically arranged lessons, must be practised by word of command, and only after the men are thoroughly trained in these exercises can the counter-thrusting, as it is called, come in practice here likewise; this demands, however, always the greatest caution, and must be done without passion, otherwise the instructor must immediately interpose. We add here a few explanatory lessons.

  1. Engagement outwards (the musket to the left of the lance), the lancer (pl. 28, fig. 18b) thrusts at the left side of the foot-soldier, who parries tierce (fig. 18a), thrusts back, and takes the position of guard; the lancer (fig. 17b) thrusts at the lower body or thigh of the foot-soldier, who parries seconde (fig. 17a), thrusts, and “en garde.”
  2. Engagement inwards (the musket on the right of the lance): the lancer (fig. 13b) thrusts at the right side of the foot-soldier, who (fig. 13a) parries quarte, thrusts, and “en garde;” then follow thrust and parry as in fig. 17a,b.
  3. Engagement inside and outside, with disengagement. Lancer: engagement outside, disengagement and thrust to the left, at the right side of footman (fig. 13b). Footman: quarte-parade (fig. 13a), thrust, and “en garde.” Lancer: engagement inwards, disengagement, and thrust to the right, at the left side of footman (fig. 18b). Footman: tierce-parade (fig. 18a), thrust, “en garde.” Lancer: engagement outwards, disengagement, and deep thrust to the left, at the lower body or thigh. Footman: parry seconde, thrust, en garde. Lancer: engagement outwards, disengagement, and deep thrust to the right (fig. 17b). Footman: seconde-parade (fig. 17a), thrust, and en garde.
  4. With swingings: Lancer: swing by the right upper-arm to the front, and thrust to the front (fig. 15b). Footman: high-quarte-parade (fig. 15a), thrust, and en garde. Lancer: swing under the right arm to the rear, and thrust right, backwards (fig. 13b) Footman: quarte-parade, thrust, and en garde. Lancer: swing to the left upper-arm to the rear, and thrust left backwards. Footman: tierce parade and en garde. Lancer: swing under the right arm, and thrust to the front (fig. 14b). Footman: high-tierce-parade (fig. 14a), and en garde in the kneeling position (fig. 16a). Lancer: thrust at footman’s head (fig. 16b). Footman: springs up with a yell (to frighten the horse), high tierce-parade (fig. 14a), thrust, and en garde. The lessons in such manœuvres can be very much varied, the blows with the lance introduced into them, and finally the combat in the circle. The conclusion of the instruction is counter-thrusting, in which, without commands, the men engage each other by twos, and combat at their own discretion. Two footmen may engage one horseman, or the reverse.


The drilling of soldiers, or the training in rank and file, after they have, as individuals, attained the requisite dexterity and precision in their movements by gymnastic exercises, requires great attention, and every army, therefore, has its own system of instruction, according to which the necessary exercises are performed. As these systems differ essentially from each other, we can give here only a general outline of the principal evolutions.

The fundamental principle which must prevail in all movements and passings from one place to another is this, that every movement shall be effected in the shortest possible time and with the utmost possible simplicity; the first, in order that the troops, when such movements are made under the enemy’s fire, shall be exposed to it, inactive and defenceless, for the least time possible; the second, in order to avoid that confusion, which, in complicated manœuvres under fire, only too readily arises.

The facings of single files in place are either quarter facings, to the right or left (right face, left face), whereby the man so changes his front that the new one is perpendicular to the old, or half-facings (about face), in which the man brings his face in the direction which his back had at first. Different armies require these movements to be made, either always to the right or always to the left. Between these principal facings come the eighth facings (right half-face, left half-face) and the three-eighths facings, right or left, the nature of which is given by the name. These facings are made in place and on the march alike. The manner of march (the pace) is different in different armies; there are generally two distinct kinds, the parade step of 60 paces to the minute, and the double or quick step of 90 to 120 paces per minute; in many armies, however, there is only a medium time of 100 to 105 paces per minute, and all quicker movements are made in a trot. In the American service there are three times or paces, viz. common time, 90 paces to the minute; quick time, 120 paces; and double quick time, 140 paces; the last is a trot.

Where the troops are to be exercised in bodies the disposition in rank and file takes place. In rank the men stand so that each one can feel lightly the elbow of the file on his right and left; this feeling (touch) is not to be lost even when on the march. The formation is either in two or in three ranks, so disposed that between each rank there is an interval of about three fourths of a yard, to give the rear men free space for their motions; the men who stand one behind the other form a file. The company forms usually two platoons, rarely three, and the platoons are again divided into sections, which must contain not more than six nor less than four files. (In the American service the platoon is divided into two sections only.) On the right and left flank of each platoon stands an officer, and in rear of each a non-commissioned officer, who steps immediately into the officer’s place whenever he loses it. The rest of the commissioned and non-commissioned are dispersed behind the platoons (file-closers), or, when sections are formed, pass to the flanks of these.

The direction in rank (dress) is attained when each file, keeping the shoulders square and without turning the head, can just see the breast of the second man on his right or left. When, however, the whole line is to take a new direction, this is done on particular objects (points). For this purpose each company has an especial non-commissioned officer (marker), who carries a small flag (guidon, marker’s staff). If the whole battalion is to take a new direction, the adjutant first establishes the markers at company distance from each other on the new line; then, at the command “Guides on the line!” the proper non-commissioned officers step forward for each platoon and establish themselves on the line; if then the new line is not more than four paces distant from the old, the men form themselves upon it by the command “Right” or “Left Dress!” but if the distance is more than that, then at the command “Dress!” the chief of each company gives the command “March!” and leads his company by the shortest line upon the new alignment.

V. Plate 29: Military Tactics and French Troops in Algiers
Engraver: A. Krausse

Changes of front are effected either by the various facings of individual files or by evolutions of the whole together. When the line is faced about, the front rank, of course, becomes the rear and the right flank the left; in order, therefore, to maintain the proper position of the flanks and files, the countermarch must be performed (pl. 29, fig. 1). When the companies have made the about face, the sections will be in the order 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, and the first rank will be the last; then the command “Left face” is given, and at the word “March!” the leading file of the second rank turns on his own ground to the right, while his rear-rank man, who is the leading file of the first rank, turns on him as a pivot until he fronts towards the new flank, maintaining the proper touch of elbow; then this file marches along the front, followed by all the other files in succession, each turning in the same manner on the same ground, until they arrive at 8, when the command “Halt, front!” is given, and the company has the position 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, the first rank being in front and the flanks in their proper place. As this manœuvre would take too much time with a long line, it is made by sections or by platoons (fig. 2).

Another method of changing front in line is by wheels to the right or left. On the command “Left wheel!” the left file of the company faces to the left (fig. 3) and the rest of the line step out, so that each man on the march describes a circle, of which the left file is the centre. As soon as the company has arrived upon the new line of direction the command “Forward march!” is given, on which each man marches again direct to the front. By this method of course, the company, when the wheel is ended, has gained its whole breadth to the left; but if the wheel must be on the same ground, then it must be made on a centre pivot (pl. 29, fig. 4); in this case one half the company, here the sections 5, 6, 7, and 8, faces about, and at the word of command each wheels independently; when the new line is attained the command “Halt!” is given, the sections 5, 6, 7, and 8 face to the front, and the new alignment is established. Another species of wheel is “Shoulders forward!” which differs from the first in this, that the pivot man does not remain standing, but describes, taking very short steps, a small circle about the wheeling point (fig. 34 at 6). In all the above described manœuvres, the men must take longer steps the further distant they are from the wheeling point, so that the line shall remain always straight. To the changes of front belong also the formations by file, by means of which a position may be taken, without wheeling or counter-marching, which is either directly opposite to the first or perpendicular to it. The formation by file can be made, on the same ground, either forwards or backwards, but on the march it can be effected only forwards and from the march by a flank. It can be made from the front and flank forwards by the half-face, backwards by face and a half; the fugleman from whom the formation starts forms the base on which it is made. For the file formation on the same ground the command is, “By files right (left), march!” (fig. 5) whereupon the right (left) fugleman faces to the right, but all the rest of the files half-face to the right. On the command “March!” the fugleman remains halted, and the rest move forward in the direction of the half-face until they arrive on the new line (the dotted line in our figure), when they assume the touch and dress. This formation can be made by sections also (fig. 6). In our figure the formation is made to the left; the whole line faces about, section 1 makes a quarter wheel and then fronts. The other sections wheel on a centre pivot and march on the diagonal to the new alignment, where they halt, front, and dress on the 1st section. (In our figure, by an error of the engraver the numbers on the new (dotted) line are in reversed order, so that No. 1 comes where No. 8 should be, &c.) The file-formation backwards is made by the command, “By file right backwards march!” At this the right fugleman, who is the base of formation, faces to the left-about, the others make a face and a half to the right. At the word “March!” the fugleman remains standing, all the others step out; the rear rank file of the fugleman passes round him and establishes himself on the new alignment in his rear, the others pass over the shortest line on to the new direction, where they halt, front, and dress on the base which is already established in it, the second rank passing by files into the rear of the first. When the file-formation is to be made from the march by a flank, the leading file halts at the word “March!” the others make a half-face to the left and come up in the diagonal upon the new line, where they halt and dress upon the resting flank.

To put divisions of troops in march there is a great variety of methods. The march may be with unchanged front (forward march), or with altered front (march to the rear, oblique march, flank march); it can be with full front (front march), or with broken front (by companies, platoons, or sections). In the front march (battalion forward march in line of battle) the dress is always on the color, which with the color section is in the centre. The color and the officers, in this case, step forward and take the direction, while the whole line follow them. In the march to the rear in line of battle the whole fine faces about, the color and officers pass to the front, and the march is made as before. The flank march is made only to the right or left, and when concluded the proper front is resumed.

The march with broken front is either by companies, platoons, or sections. The front is broken by the command: “By companies, platoons, or sections, right or left wheel!” If the march is to be made forward and from the right flank (pl. 29, fig. 12) then the command is: “By companies, right wheel; first company forward!” and at the word, “March!” the first company moves direct to the front until it has gained company’s distance, when it halts. Meanwhile each of the other companies has made the \(\frac{1}{4}\) wheel to the right and halted. At the command, “March!” the first company moves forward, the second commences the wheel to the left, and as soon as it is completed moves forward, as shown at 1 2; meanwhile the third company has reached the wheeling-point, and wheels at the instant the second marches to the first, and so on in succession to the eighth. The movement is made from the left flank by the same means in reversed order and command. If after a march by companies the full front is to be formed again, the first company, if the march has been right in front, halts on reaching the designated alignment, the second company wheels at the same time to the left, and as soon as the wheel is completed comes right into line; with the commencement of this movement the third company has arrived at the wheeling-point, when it wheels to the left and then marches forward until it arrives opposite the left flank of the second company, which by this time is established on the line, when it comes right into line, as before, and so for each company in succession. If the march was left in front (pl. 29, fig. 24) the eighth company halts, and the movements already described are made by the others in reversed order and direction. If the march has been by platoons and it is desired to form companies (fig. 15), the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth platoons move in quick time left oblique to the side of their corresponding covering platoon, and if then the front is to be re-established the first company halts on the designated line, and the other companies do the same as soon as they have covered those in front of them; the first, second, and third companies then face to the right and march by that flank, until they are opposite their proper place in line, when they face to the left and come up on to it, the fourth company moving, as soon as uncovered, directly forward to its place. If the line is to be formed to the left of the point at which the column has struck it, the first company stands fast; the second, third, and fourth, as soon as they have covered, face to the left, march to that flank in the same manner as before, and come by the right face into line. If a bridge is to be crossed which is too narrow for the front of a company or platoon (fig. 16), the first section passes by the front, the second files round by the flank, perpendicularly to the line of the first, as at 5, and in this position crosses the bridge, as at 4; when the other side is reached it comes again into line with the first section by a file formation.

To the march with changed front belongs the march to the rear, the simplest form of which, by the about-face in line of battle, has been already described. Fig. 13 shows a march to the rear in broken front and from the left flank. The eighth company makes a half-circle wheel to the left and thus moves direct to the front; all the other companies make at first only the quarter wheel, and the second wheel only on reaching the ground where the eighth has wheeled. The same movement may be made to the right. If the march was made by the about-face by companies from the left flank, so that the eighth company is leading and the rear-rank in front, then the line is re-established by counter-marching the companies, which brings the ranks into place; the eighth company establishes itself on the alignment, the seventh wheels to the right, and as soon as it is opposite the right flank of the eighth comes on the left into line, the other companies wheel on the same ground as the seventh, and come successively into line in the same manner. If the march was by platoons from the left, as in fig. 24, and it is desired to form companies in retreat and present the full front again to the enemy, the manœuvre is as in fig. 27. Here the first rank is foremost, and would, therefore, by the subsequent formation be brought into the rear; to avoid this the platoons are countermarched, then form companies according to pl. 29, fig. 15, establish the line of battle as shown by that figure also, and then the whole line is faced to the front.

Oblique marches are designed to move a direct line of battle over a diagonal, and are made with unbroken front by each file making the eighth face in the direction indicated by the leader, and then marching forward in that direction. If, however, an oblique front is to be moved in a parallel direction (figs. 31 and 17), then the front is broken into sections, which wheel inwards so far as to be perpendicular to the line of march, and then move direct to the front by sections until the left flank of each comes upon the new alignment, when they halt and are wheeled into line. (Here also the engraver has reversed the number of sections in the new position.) If a line of battle, which with about-face has marched obliquely by companies from the left flank (fig. 28, the unhatched part), is to take a new position, with the front to the enemy and parallel, therefore, to the first, then points are established upon the new line, which being done the companies move by a flank in the proper direction on to it, and are there wheeled into line and fronted towards the enemy. If the new line, oblique to the line of march, intersects this (fig. 29), then the command “Halt!” is given, the points are established in the new line, part of the companies move by the right flank, the other part by the left upon this, and on reaching it are wheeled and fronted as before; in this case, however, part of the companies (here the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth) must pass over the alignment until their left flank rests upon it.

The march by a flank, when not made with unbroken front by a face of the whole line, may be either in companies or platoons. In the march by the right flank (fig. 10) the companies or platoons wheel together to the right and then move off in column, the first in front. The line is re-established by the commands, “Halt!” and “Left into line, wheel!” In the march by the left flank (fig. 11) the wheel is to the left and the second platoon is in front; the line is re-established by a wheel to the right. If the march is to be by the left flank, yet with the first company or platoon in front, then a kind of countermarch is made (fig. 14). All the companies wheel to the right; on the next command, “March!” the first company wheels again a half-circle to the right, and then marches direct to the front along the former line. The other companies follow and wheel on the same ground as the first.

A column is formed so soon as the companies approach each other so closely that the distance between them is no longer the length of a company as usual, but at most one pace from the line of file-closers. The column is formed, from the march to the flank, by the command, “Form column!” on which the first company halts and the others close upon it. In the United States service, as in the French, this restriction of the column is not received; the column is formed whenever the line is broken into companies, platoons, sections, or other subdivisions, placed one in rear of the other, and that which alone is here called the column is merely distinguished as the close column. A column of companies at platoon distance is called column at half distance.

If the column is to be formed from line of battle, it can be done on the first, last, or one of the inner platoons. To form column on the first company (pl. 29, fig. 7), the command is, “On right, into column; first company stand fast; right face!” whereupon all the companies, save the first, face to the right. On the word, “March!” all the other companies move by the right flank, obliquely one behind the other, into the rear of the first company. If the column is to be formed on the last company, however, the command is, “On left, into column; last company stand fast; left face!” whereupon all the companies, save the last, face to the left; and at the word “March!” move obliquely, one before the other, in front of the last company (fig. 8). To form the column on any other company (fig. 9) the command is, “Column on the centre; second (or other company), stand fast; right and left face!” whereupon the companies in front of the designated platoon face to the left, those in its rear to the right, and at the word, “March!” they move by the left and right flanks obliquely to the front and rear, and establish themselves before and behind the company which stands fast. To re-form the line of battle from the column of companies the deployment is practised. If the column was formed to the right (fig. 18) the command is, “Deploy by the left!” whereupon guides are established on the prolongation of the line of the first company, by which the new alignment is determined. On the further command, “Left face!” all the companies save the first face to the left, and at the word, “March!” move off by the left flank; as each company comes opposite its interval in line its chief commands, “Right face!” and marches it on to the alignment, when he halts and dresses it. If the column was formed to the left (fig. 20), the command is, “Deploy by the right!” upon which guides are established for the new alignment on the prolongation of the line of the last company; on the command, “Left face!” all the companies save the last make this movement, and at the word, “March!” move by the flank, opposite to their interval in line, where they face to the left again, move forward into it, then face about and dress. If the column was formed on the centre (fig. 19) the command is, “Deploy by the right and left!” Whereupon the guides in front of the platoon on which the formation was made prolong themselves to the right on the line of the first company, and those in rear of the company of formation prolong themselves to the left of this front line: at the command, “Right and left face!” the company of formation stands fast, the companies in rear of this face to the left, those in front of it to the right, and at the word, “March!” all move opposite to their intervals in line, the company of formation marching, as soon as uncovered, direct to the front on to this line; the others establish themselves upon it in the same manner as before explained. Sometimes the column is formed to the left in such a manner that the first companies have faced to the left and established themselves in rear of the last (left in front), then the line of battle is re-formed by deployment to the right and coming into line by the right face. If a column, formed on the first company, is on the march to the rear, and is to be established on the alignment of the last company with the front to the enemy (pl. 29, fig. 21), the column is first countermarched by companies, then deployed by the right and with right face, but brought into line by the left face.

A column can change its direction in march by advancing the shoulders, the fugleman of the first company moving with short steps into the new direction, the other files conforming themselves to him by degrees. If, for example, a new alignment is to be established upon the first company, at an angle of 45° with the old (fig. 22), the first company moves on the command, “Left shoulders forward!” on to the new alignment which has been indicated by guides; as soon as the column has re-established itself again, covering the first company, the deployment is made by the left, and the companies brought into line by the right face. If instead of the eighth part of a circle the change of direction is to be the fourth part (fig. 23), the right hand fugleman of the first company makes a full face in the required direction, the guides are established to the left and dressed on him, the column is then faced and led by the flank upon the new direction.

In the passage of a defile or over a bridge when a new line of battle is to be formed to the front immediately upon emerging from the defile (fig. 30), one company (the fourth in this case) is marched by the front across the defile and established upon the new line, then the other companies face to the right and left and march by the flank, two at a time, through the defile, until their leading flanks come opposite to their place in the new line, when they establish themselves upon this by a file formation to the front on each side of the standing company.

The echelon order (fig. 32) is now seldom introduced; it consists in this: single companies are arranged one behind the other obliquely, like steps, while the principal part of the order of battle forms the proper front of attack. The echelon may be formed also from the centre, producing a kind of wedge-shaped order. Fig. 34 shows on the left half in the hatched part a front of 6 companies in parade order, in three ranks, with the file-closers, &c., in the rear. The remainder of the figure represents the passing in review of these companies. After the parade is formed and has saluted, the command is given: “Pass in review; first company forward; by companies, right wheel, march!” upon which the captains pass to the front of their companies, and the flank officers or non-commissioned officers take their places. The first company marches direct to the point until it has gained company distance, the others wheel to the right, and then all halt. The guides (markers) are established at the wheeling-points as points of direction. On the command, “Parade, march!” the companies move direct to the front, only the second wheels immediately, and the succeeding ones as they arrive at the same place. When the first company arrives at the second wheeling point it wheels again to the left until the command “Forward!” is given, and so with all the other companies. In passing, the officers and color salute, the men carry arms. Pl. 29, fig. 6, shows the change of direction by the shoulders forward, in which the fugleman on the left (the pivot file) describes with short steps a small circle, but in fig. 5 the change of direction by a wheel, in which the left fugleman makes a face in the required direction, and then remains at a halt until the command, “Forward!” is given.

Fig. 33 shows the movements of an Army corps which forms, from its two lines of battle, columns of march by the left flank, two columns from each line; the first half of each line marching direct to the front, the other half making a double wheel at d, and then moving parallel to the first column. After completion of the march the new double lines of battle are re-established by means of opposite wheels at e.

The Artillery drill is very complicated, as in this the artillerists must be in great part converted into drivers, as with most armies the drivers are artillerists also. The pieces are manned, according to the weight of the ball they carry, with more or fewer persons. Thus: a 6-pounder requires six men; a 12-pounder, eight men for its service, including the drivers, non-commissioned officers, &c. Fig. 35 shows the disposition of the men at a 12-pounder. At 8 stands a man who sponges and rams; at 7 the one who inserts the cartridge. For this purpose both step round the wheel near to the muzzle, and step back again when the piece is about to be discharged. The man at 10 has charge of the direction, in which he is assisted by 11 and 12 who move the trail to one side or the other at his signal, and he then prepares the piece to fire; the man at 9 touches off, and in heavy ground assists at the wheel in giving the direction. At the limber are two men more as reserve, and to assist in limbering and unlimbering, &c.; they also supply ammunition. At a 6-pounder only four men serve the piece, the man who fires assisting also at the trail handspikes to give the direction; there are two men at the limber employed as with the 12-pounder. The movements of a gun in changing place are very various. For very short distances the piece may be moved forwards and backwards by the men who serve it (pl. 29, fig. 36), those at 10, 8, 9, and 7 lay hold of the wheel-spokes, and the men of the reserve assist at the wheels likewise at 1, 2, 3, and 4, 5, 6, while at 11 and 10 two men heave at the trail with handspikes, to move it right or left, and thus guide the piece in the required direction. For greater distances bricoles are used, one or two for light pieces, two or four for heavier ones. Fig. 39 shows a light gun which is being moved back with two bricoles; they are attached to the hooks for that purpose at the trail, and are manned by the troops, while two of those who serve the gun assist at the wheels. Fig. 38 shows the same piece being moved forwards; here the bricoles are attached to hooks upon the washers of the wheels, and the piece is dragged forwards by the men, while two at the trail handspikes (11 and 14) give the necessary direction. Fig. 40 shows a heavy gun being moved with bricoles, backwards; here two bricoles are attached at the cheeks of the trail and two at the wheel-washers, at which the men of the piece and the reserve draw. If the piece is to be transported to still greater distances, it is limbered up, as shown in fig. 37, where the crew distributing themselves about the gun move on each side of and parallel to it, those who serve the piece, at 7, 8, 9, and 10, as they stand at it; those from the trail at 12, and 13 at the limber; the men of the reserve at the limber at 14 and near the horses at 11; the non-commissioned officer near the horses at the head as leader. This drill is used by the English artillery; with the Prussian and French it is simplified, as with them only the prolonge is used, which is fastened either to the ring of the trail or to the breast-transom, and then for considerable distances the piece is moved not by its crew but by the limber at the end of the prolonge. For short distances the piece is moved always by hand as in fig. 36.


Castrametation is a distinct branch of military science, and belongs to the department of the general staff officers. When a division of the army is to encamp, a suitable place is first sought for by proper reconnoissances; then a camp is staked out, and the tents carried by the train, or huts and bivouacs of material found on the spot, are set up by the persons detailed for that purpose. The tents are designed to contain each, either 8 infantry or half that number of cavalry, or else 16 infantry, or the same proportion of cavalry. Pl. 29, fig. 41a shows the ground plan of the small 8 man tent; fig. 41b the elevation of the same. In the centre of the tent stands lengthwise a wooden frame, over which the tent is thrown, and whose ridge-piece forms the top of the same. The front wall is straight, and contains the entrance; the back is half round, or rather conical. At the bottom, the tent is fastened by means of tent pegs, on which a notch is cut, and which are driven through loops in the ground, as shown in the figure; a shallow ditch being dug around them to carry off the water. The tent for 16 men (fig. 42 a, b) is rounded at both ends, of double the size, and has its entrance in the middle of the side. For laying out the camp and setting off the right angles, the tracing line (fig. 43) is used; but a right angle can always be laid off very easily, by having in the measuring line four knots, which are six, eight, and ten feet distant from each other, by sticking a peg into the knot between six and eight, and then forming a triangle of six, eight, and ten, the angle at the peg six will always be a right angle.

As to the general form of encampment, fig. 44 represents a camp of four infantry regiments, two cavalry regiments, and three batteries. The rectangle, a, a, a, a, 1410 paces in depth and 5872 paces (of two feet ) in breadth, forms the line of the outermost posts. Then comes, 120 paces inside of this, the second line of posts, b, b, b, b, and again, at 120 paces from the front and two sides of these, on three sides therefore, the tents of the camp guard c, c, c. At A, A, A, A, is the camp of the four infantry regiments; at B, B, lie the cavalry regiments; at C and C, the light artillery; at D and E, foot artillery; and at F, the pioneer division and the pontoon and camp trains.

Fig. 45 is part of a camp for an infantry regiment of three battalions in the first line, with tents or huts for sixteen men each. In the part here represented lay four companies of the third battalion, the whole second battalion, and five companies of the first; the remainder is left out to save space, but can easily be added. A, are the colonel’s tents; he has two assigned to him, one of which is used as an office and store-tent; B, B, B, the tents of battalion commanders; C, the lieutenant colonel’s tent; D, D, the tents of the men, which stand five paces distant from each other in breadth; E, the wagon train; a, regimental adjutant; b, the administrative officers; c, captains; d, ensigns; e, adjutants; f, surgeons; g, line of camp kitchens; h, guard-house for the advanced posts of the camp guard; i, sentry-box for the same; j, hut for prisoners; k, line of camp benches; l, 1st and 2d lieutenants; m, musicians; n, battalion drummer and staff bugler; 0, laborers; p, camp guard; q, officer of this guard; r, arm racks of the camp guard; s, wagon master; t, paymaster’s chest; u, arm racks of the camp piquets; v, sutler’s tent; w, wash tent; x, stand for the train horses; y, soldiers of the train; z, officers’ horses; bb, sinks for the men; ee, sinks for the officers.

Pl. 29, fig. 46, shows the arrangement of a French camp for two infantry battalions, or rather two thirds of the camp of a regiment. The tents here are designed for eight men, and they are placed with their backs together, and the broad side towards the front of the camp, in order to give it less depth; this brings the entrances upon the camp streets. The rows of tents are three paces distant from each other, and the camp streets are five paces wide. The letter references are exactly the same as in the preceding figure.

Fig. 47 is the camp of a French cavalry regiment of six squadrons, with huts for fourteen men each. The huts are so placed, that their entrances are on the camp streets; the horses of each section are in one line, with their heads towards the huts, and fastened to the picket pole. The letters indicate different objects, as follows: O, the two huts of the colonel; OL, the lieutenant colonel; EC, chef d’escadron, or major; RA, regimental adjutant; AS, paymaster, adjutant, and ensign; RC, regimental surgeon; A, adjutant; D, men’s huts; F, drivers of the train; LL, lazaretto and hospital; OF, officers’ huts; T, farriers; UO, non-commissioned officers; W, wagon master and laborers; WP, quarter guard; aa, line of camp kitchens; b, smithies; cc, place for forage; ee, line of horses at the picket pole; gg, men’s sinks: the officers’ sinks lie 160 paces in rear of the officers’ huts. On the left of the figure in front of the encampment, the six squadrons are represented on parade as they have marched from their cantonments.

Around the encampment is thrown, as above mentioned, a chain of advanced posts, which are designed to observe any approach of the enemy at a distance so great, that before an actual attack can be made, the whole camp is on the alert, and all the men ready for action. Such advanced posts are usually established in every case when, from any cause, the force is not in condition to form instantly in battle array, ready for assault, as in disembarkations, for example. Fig. 48 shows such a disembarkation of French troops in Algiers. While the boats of the fleet are landing the soldiery, and these are assembling, a chain of advanced posts is immediately thrown out, who observe the field in all directions, and, opposing a slight resistance to any attempt of the foe, arouse the attention of the main body, which will thus be in readiness to beat back the assailants.

Orders and Badges of Honor

The military service is one of sacrifice and privation, and many qualities are required from the soldier which are not nearly so indispensable for the civilian, such as courage bordering on contempt of death, devotion, perspicacity, presence of mind, endurance, and many other qualities seldom united in the same individual, and even with the best requiring some stimulus; recognition at least, when they appear in a remarkable degree and with striking effect; where they are wanting, or injurious qualities display themselves by the production of offences, admonition and punishment. The system of rewards and punishments for the military must therefore be a very elaborate one.

We shall here speak only of the rewards, which consist of promotions out of the regular order, and of personal distinctions by orders and tokens of honor. Orders are the most common means of reward, as the possibility of promotion is always limited, and by promotions out of the regular order others less favored by fortune are often injured. Every state has its own orders, and a great number of these, especially designed for distinction in military service, are represented on Plates 30, 31, and 32, which we will describe more in detail.

V. Plate 30: Austrian and Prussian Orders
Engraver: Henry Winkles & Lehmann

Austrian Empire. The Military Order of Maria Theresa (pl. 30, upper figs. 1 and 2) was founded by Maria Theresa as a reward for truth, bravery, and capacity in the military class, and for the honorable remembrance of heroes and heroism. Its foundation day is the 18th of June, 1757 (Battle of Kollin). The order has Grand Crosses, Commanders, and Knights. The insignia of the order are a gold white enamelled cross (fig. 1); the centre shield is a silver beam on a red field, with the motto, Fortitudini, around it. On the reverse is the name-cypher, M. T. F. (Maria Theresa. Franciscus), enamelled in black upon a white field, surrounded with a laurel wreath. The Grand Crosses wear the insignia suspended from a hand-broad ribbon with three equal stripes of red and white, and passing en echarpe from the right to the left; the Commanders from a similar one, but narrower, and en sautoir (round the neck); the knights wear a smaller cross (fig. 2), at a narrow ribbon on the breast. The Grand Crosses wear besides a silver embroidered decoration upon the left breast, which displays the cross of the order resting upon a green laurel wreath in a golden border. All members receive the rank of Knight in virtue of the Order, if they had it not before.

The Order of Leopold (pl. 30, upper figs. 6 and 7) was founded by the Emperor Francis I., on the 8th of January, 1808. It consists of Grand Crosses, Commanders, and Knights, and is bestowed also on civilians. The insignia of the Order are a gold cross, enamelled red, with white edges, having on the face the name-cypher, F. J. A., in a red centre shield, with the device, Integritate et merito, on the white border; and on the reverse, in an oak wreath, the Emperor Leopold’s motto, Opes regum corda suhditorum. Between the arms of the cross are golden oak leaves and acorns, and above it the Imperial crown. Grand Crosses wear the order en echarpe at a hand-broad, red silk, white bordered ribbon (fig. 6), and on the left breast a silver octagonal star, with the cross of the Order. This Order has also a collar, which is of gold, and consists of laurel wreaths and the intertwined letters F. and L., adorned with the Imperial crown. The Commanders wear the cross at a narrower ribbon, and en sautoir; the Knights at a narrow ribbon on the breast (fig. 7).

The Order of Elizabeth Theresa (fig. 3) is called also the Military Foundation of Elizabeth Theresa. It was founded in 1750 by Elizabeth Christina, the widow of Charles VI., for twenty Knights, and may be given to persons of any nation or religion. The badge of the Order is an oval, octagonal, red and white star, with a golden border, beneath the Imperial crown in gold. The white central shield displays, under the golden Imperial crown, the name-cyphers E. C. and M. T., and around them the device of the Order: M. Theresia parentis gratiam perennem voluit. The order is worn round the neck with a narrow black ribbon. The Catholic Knights must pray daily three Pater Nosters and three Ave Marias for the founder. The Lutheran must pay three ducats yearly to the Invalid Institute.

The Order of the Iron Crown (figs. 4 and 5) was founded by Napoleon in 1805, and confirmed by the Emperor Francis on the 12th of October, 1815. It is bestowed upon civilians also, consists of three classes, and has twenty Knights of the first, thirty of the second, and fifty of the third class. The Knights have, for all occasions of ceremony, an order dress in the style of the middle ages, of yellow, blue, and white, with gold fringes and embroidery. The badge of the Order is an imitation of the iron crown, under a golden, imperial, crowned double eagle, who bears upon his breast a blue heart-shaped shield, with the cypher F. Knights of the first class wear the order with a broad gold-yellow silk ribbon (fig. 4) with dark blue border, en echarpe from right to left, and besides, on the left breast, a silver octagonal star, upon which is a round gold shield with the iron crown. The shield has a blue border with gold edge, and the device of the Order: Avita et aucta. The gold collar consists of the letters F. P., the iron crown, and an oak wreath alternately. Knights of the second class wear a somewhat smaller badge at a narrower ribbon, en sautoir, and those of the third class one still smaller on the breast (upper fig. 5).

The Metal Cross of the Army (figs. 8 and 9) the Emperor Francis I. founded on the 31st of May, 1814, at Paris. It was given to all who had made the campaigns of 1813 and 1814, and consisted of a four-cornered cross, with a green oak wreath, coined from captured gun metal, having on one side the inscription: Grati princeps et patria. Franc. Imp. Aug., and on the other: Europæ libertate asserta, MDCCCXIII. MDCCCXIV. It is worn on the breast from a ribbon having three stripes of black and yellow.

The Medal for Military Bravery (upper figs. 10, 11, 12, 13) was established by the Emperor Joseph II., and designed for the troops, from the sergeant major and sergeant downwards. It had at that time two classes. The first (fig. 10) consisted of a golden medal ($17 75 value) at a red ribbon, the second (fig. 11) of a silver medal (75 cents value) at a red and white cross-striped ribbon with red and white border. Francis I. constituted the medal anew; it is now worn at the breast from the same ribbon as in the second class before, and is cast in gold and silver (figs. 12, 13), displaying on one side the Emperor’s bust, and on the other a laurel wreath and color, with the legend: Der Tapferkeit (to bravery).

Kingdom of Prussia. The Order of the Black Eagle (pl. 30, lower figs. 1, 2, 3) was founded by King Frederick I. of Prussia, on the 18th of January, 1701, and is the first order in the state. It was to have originally, besides the sons and brothers of the reigning king (who were born Knights of the Order), only thirty Knights, who must be at least thirty years of age, or, if princes, of the age of confirmation, usually 14 years. The badge of the Order consists of a gold, blue enamelled Maltese cross, on the central shield of which is the cypher F. R. In the angles of the cross are four black eagles with spread wings. The cross (fig. 3) is worn from a hand-broad orange colored silk ribbon, en echarpe from left to right. There belongs to it on the left breast, a silver embroidered eight pointed star, with a round centre shield, in which, on an orange colored ground, is a flying black eagle, having a laurel wreath in one claw and a thunderbolt in the other. The white border bears, in gold, the device of the Order: Suum cuique (fig. 1). Subsequently the knights had a peculiar Order costume, and a collar (fig. 2), which was composed of black eagles with thunderbolts, and round shields set with four crowns. The shields were blue, with golden borders and white centre fields, with the device of the Order. On the blue ground stood four times the name-cypher FF. R. At present the collar is borne only at royal obsequies and as heraldic decoration, and the number of knights is unlimited. They are at the same time Knights of the Order of the Red Eagle of the first class, and wear it round the neck.

The Order of the Red Eagle (pl. 30, lower figs. 4 and 5) George William instituted in 1705, when he was yet hereditary prince of Baireuth, and confirmed on his accession to the throne in 1712. It was regenerated on the 18th of January, 1810, and divided into three classes. The insignia of the Order (fig. 4) consist of a gold, white enamelled cross; in its round white centre shield soars, on the face, the crowned red eagle with the Hohenzollern escutcheon (quartered black and white) on the heart, and a laurel branch in the claws. On the reverse is the name-cypher F. W. on a white ground, with a crown. The cross is the same for all classes, only of different sizes. Knights of the first class wear it from a broad silk ribbon, white, with orange border, en echarpe from left to right, and with it, on the left breast, a silver embroidered eight pointed star, whose centre shield is like that of the Order cross, and has the superscription: Sincere et constanter. Where the knight has been previously of the second and third classes, oak leaves are added to the insignia. Knights of the second class wear the badge of the Order, en sautoir, from a narrow ribbon, and the oldest knights a four pointed silver embroidered star, worked with the full insignia of the Order, on the left breast. Knights of the third class wear a small cross, from a narrow ribbon, on the breast. On the 18th of January, 1830, the fourth class of the Order was founded, to take the place of the Merit medal. The badge is of silver instead of enamelled gold (fig. 5). Knights of the third class who have had the fourth, wear the third with a bow.

The Order of Military Merit (fig. 7) was instituted in 1665 by Prince Charles Emilius, under the title, Ordre de la Générosite. Frederick II., on his accession to the throne in 1740, changed that name to its present one. The badge of the Order is a blue enamelled Maltese cross, whose upper arm bears the letter F under a crown, and the three other arms the inscription: Pour le mérite. In the angles of the cross are golden eagles with outspread wings. The cross is worn, en sautoir, from a black silk ribbon with silver border. Extraordinary merit adds oak leaves to the order, and a second silver stripe to the border. Of this Order there is a peace class also for civil merit.

The Order of St. John (pl. 30, lower fig. 6). After the old commanderies of the Order of St. John, Brandenburg, and the Mastership of the Army were done away with in 1810 and 1811, the new Order of St. John was founded on the 23d of May, 1812, as an order of merit, but principally as a token of favor, given, however, only to nobles (without proof of ancestry). The badge of the Order is a white enamelled Maltese cross, in the angles of which are crowned black eagles with outspread wings. The cross is worn by the knights, who form but one class, en sautoir, from a black watered silk ribbon. On the left breast is worn a simple white Maltese cross. The Order has a peculiar state uniform.

The Iron Cross (figs. 9 and 10) was instituted on the 10th of March, 1813, for those who had rendered effective service to the fatherland. The cross continues by inheritance in the regiment, so long as any deserving persons remain in it who took part in the campaigns ot 1813 and 1814. The Order has two classes. The cross is of cast iron, with silver border, and bears the name-cypher F. W. under a crown, three oak leaves, and the date, 1813 (fig. 9). Military men wear it from a black ribbon with white border; civilians, from a white ribbon with black border (fig. 10), both on the breast. Knights of the first class bear, in addition, a simple black, silver bordered cross, as a star, on the left breast. There were also some Grand Crosses (Blücher, for example), who wore the cross twice as large, en sautoir. This Order is now gradually dying out, as it was bestowed only in 1813–14.

The Medal of Military Merit (fig. 8), instituted in 1793 by Frederick William II., was for non-commissioned officers a gold, for privates a silver medal, which had on one side the name-cypher of the king with the date 1793, on the other, in a laurel wreath the words, Verdienst um den Staat (Service to the State), and was worn on the breast from a black ribbon. Since 1814 this medal has been changed for a silver cross (as fig. 5), is called Military Decoration of the first class, and is worn from the ribbon of the Iron Cross.

The Medal for 1813–14 (fig. 11), instituted in 1813, by Frederick William III., for all the military who had served without reproach against the enemy in 1813–14. The medal has on one side, under the crowned name-cypher F. W. the inscription, Preussens tapfern Kriegern (Prussia’s brave warriors), with the circumscription, Gott war mit uns, ihm sex die Ehre (God was with us, to him be the honor). On the other side is a cross upon rays, in whose centre, within a laurel wreath, is the date 1813, 1814. On the edge are the words, Aus feindlichem geschutz (from the enemy’s guns). The medal is worn upon the breast from an orange ribbon with black and white border. Non-combatants received iron medals with the inscription, Für Pflichttreue im Kriege (for faith in war), the king’s cypher and the circumscription, Gott war mit uns, ihm sei die Ehre. These medals were worn at the breast from a white ribbon with black and orange border.

V. Plate 31: German and Danish Medals and Military Orders
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Kingdom of Bavaria. The Military Order of Max Joseph (pl. 31, fig. 1) consists of three classes. Grand Crosses, Commanders, and Knights, and was instituted by Maximilian Joseph I. in 1806, out of the Military Decoration established by the Elector Charles Theodore in 1797. The Order carries with it pension and personal nobility; if the father and grandfather have had the order, that constitutes a nobility of descent. The badge of the order is a gold, white enamelled, Maltese cross, with a gold crown. Upon the blue enamelled centre shield is, on one side, the name cypher M. K., on the other side the motto of the order, Virtuti pro patria. Between the points, each of which has a gold ball, are golden rays. The order is worn by Grand Crosses from a hand-broad, black silk ribbon with white and blue border, en echarpe, from right to left, and in addition, on the left breast, a silver eight-pointed star, embroidered with the badge and device of the Order. Commanders wear the order en sautoir, and Knights a somewhat smaller one from a narrow ribbon at the breast.

The royal Order of Louis (fig. 2) was instituted by Louis I. in 1827, for fifty years’ service, years of campaign being reckoned double. The badge of the Order (fig. 2) is, for persons who have the rank of officers, a gold cross surmounted by the royal crown, having on one side the inscription, Ludwig König von Baiern and the bust of the founder in gold upon a white ground; on the other side, surrounded by a green oak-wreath, the words Für ehrenvolle funfzig Dienstjahre (For fifty years’ honorable service). The four arms of the cross bear the inscription. Am 25. Aug. 1827. Knights under the rank of officer receive a gold medal with the same inscription. This order is worn, from a deep red ribbon with light blue border, at the left breast.

The Military Medal of Honor (fig. 3) was established by Max Joseph in 1794, for the military, from the rank of sergeant major and sergeant downwards, who had distinguished themselves by bravery, and was distributed in gold and silver. The silver medal brought the possessor an addition of half, the gold medal of full pay, which remained to them even in case they passed afterwards into the rank of officer. The medal displays on one side the bust of the founder, on the other the royal arms, held by a lion armed with a sword, and the circumscription, Der Tapferheit (to bravery). The medal is worn upon the breast, from a black ribbon with white and blue border.

The Decoration of the Army Hospital Corps (pl. 31, fig. 4) was established in 1812, by Max Joseph, for the surgeons who had been particularly efficient in the field hospital and on the field of battle. The decoration consists of a gold or silver medal, which has on one side the bust of the founder, and on the other, in a laurel-wreath, the inscription, Ob milites inter prælia et arte et virtute servatos, and is worn at the breast from a black ribbon with white and blue border.

Kingdom of Saxony. The Military Order of St. Henry (fig. 5) was founded on the 7th November, 1736, at Hubertusburg, by King Augustus III., for military merit; in 1829 it received new statutes from King Anthony. It consists of Grand Crosses, Commanders of the first and second classes, and Knights. The badge of the Order is a gold Maltese cross with white enamelled border. In the centre is a white enamelled round shield, and in this the Emperor Henry, standing, in full costume, and the letters S. H. In the blue border stands, Frid. Aug. D. G. Rex Sax. instauravit. The reverse displays, in the central field, the arms of Saxony, and in the blue border the words, Virtuti in bello. The four angles of the cross contain parts of the Saxon lozenge-crown. This badge is of three sizes. Grand Crosses wear it from a hand-broad sky-blue ribbon with yellow border, en echarpe, from right to left, and on the left breast an octagonal star of gold rays, in whose centre is the round shield of the cross (Emperor Henry), with the circumscription Virtuti in bello on a blue ground. Commanders of the first class wear a smaller cross, en sautoir, and the star, but of smaller size (3 inches), on the breast; Commanders of the second class only the cross. Knights wear the smallest cross, from a ribbon 1\(\frac{1}{2}\) inches broad, at the breast. The Knights advance through the classes. A fifth class of this Order is formed by

The Medal of Military Merit (fig. 6), established in 1796, for non-commissioned officers and privates. This is given in gold and silver, displays on one side the bust of the founder, and on the other, in a laurel-wreath and flag, the words, Verdienst um das Vaterland (Service to the country) and is worn at the breast from a ribbon one inch wide, sky-blue with yellow border.

Kingdom of Hanover. The Guelphic Order (figs. 7, 8) was founded in 1815 by George IV., at that time Prince Regent of England, and was then divided into three classes, Grand Crosses, Commanders, and Knights. The badge of the order is a Maltese cross of dead gold with polished edges, set with balls at the points; in its angles, four golden lions passant. In the centre of the cross lies a round, red shield, bearing the white horse of Brunswick. The shield is surrounded with a blue border, which contains the device of the order, Nec aspera terrent. Around this blue border lies, for civilians an oak, for military a laurel-wreath, in gold. On the reverse is, in a red field, the name-cypher “G. R.” with the royal crown, and in the golden border the date MDCCCXV. Above the cross is the Hanoverian crown, and, for the military, between the cross and crown two crossed swords. The cross is the same for all classes, but of different sizes. The Grand Crosses wear it from a broad light-blue ribbon, en echarpe, from left to right, but on gala days about the neck, from a golden chain composed of lions, royal crowns, and the cypher G. R. alternately. On the left breast is a silver eight-pointed star of forty straight and eight twisted rays, and on this the central field of the order, which, for military, rests upon two crossed swords (pl. 31, fig. 7). Commanders wear a somewhat smaller order, en sautoir, from a narrower ribbon, and on the left breast the badge of the Order embroidered in silver, but with the central shield in its appropriate colors. Knights wear the smallest cross (fig. 8), at the button-hole, from a ribbon 1\(\frac{1}{2}\) inches wide. For non-commissioned officers and soldiers there is the Guelphic Medal, which resembles the Waterloo Medal (hereafter to be described), but is worn from the ribbon of the Guelphic Order as a particular class of that Order. In the year 1841 two classes more were instituted in this Order; Commanders of the second class who do not bear the star on the breast and the holders of the Silver Cross (fifth class) for whom the order is entirely of silver, but the central shield in its proper colors, and bearing instead of the cypher G. R. the cypher E. A. R. (Ernest Aug. Rex.) The Waterloo Medal (fig. 9) was established in commemoration of the 18th June, 1815, for those who had taken part in the battle of Waterloo. It is of silver, and displays, on one side, the bust of the founder (Prince Regent George IV.) with the date 1815, and on the other, in a laurel wTeath and under a trophy, the inscription, Waterloo, June xviii. with the circumscription Hannoverscher Tapferkeit (to Hanoverian bravery). The medal, which bears also the name and office of the possessor, is worn at the breast from a crimson ribbon with sky-blue border, and was sent also to the heirs of those that fell at Waterloo as an honorable memorial.

Kingdom of Wirtemberg. The Order of Frederick (fig. 10) was founded by the present King William, in 1830, for civil and military desert, and has only one class. The badge of the Order is a gold, white enamelled cross, with golden rays between the arms. The golden central shield, surrounded with a blue border, displays the bust of King Frederick, and on the blue border the circumscription, Friedrich, König von Würtemberg. On the reverse the central shield is white enamelled and has in gold the inscription, Dem Verdienste (To merit). On the blue border stands the motto of King Frederick, Gott und mein Recht (God and my right). The order is worn from a broad, royal-blue ribbon, en echarpe, from right to left, and on the breast the badge of the Order, embroidered in gold and silver, with the motto, Gott und mein Recht, on the blue enamelled border. The order confers personal nobility.

The Order of Military Merit (pl. 31, fig. 11) was founded by Charles Eugene of Wirtemberg in 1759, and reorganized in 1799, 1806, 1816, and 1818. It consists now of Grand Crosses, Commend ators, and Knights. The decoration, which is alike for Grand Crosses and Commendators, but smaller for Knights, consists of a golden, white enamelled cross, with a central shield of the same, having on its face a green laurel wreath, with the words Furchtlos und trew (Fearless and faithful) in the blue border; on the reverse the king’s cypher W., inclosed by a blue border bearing the motto of the face. Over the cross is a double notched crown of gold. The order is worn, by Grand Crosses and Commendators, en sautoir, from a dark blue silk ribbon; by the Knights, whose cross has no crown, at the breast. Grand Crosses have also, on the left breast, the cross of the Order embroidered in silver, on which the enamelled central shield of the face is found. For non-commissioned officers and privates there is a gold and silver medal at the same ribbon.

The Military Decoration, for Officers, Non-commissioned, and Privates (fig. 12), was established in 1833 for officers of 25, non-commissioned officers and privates of 20 years’ service. This decoration is an eight-pointed cross, whose central field contains within a laurel wreath the letter W. Officers bear it in gold, non-commissioned and privates in silver, from a deep red, blue-bordered ribbon 1\(\frac{1}{2}\) inches wide, at the breast.

Grand Duchy of Baden. Charles Frederick’s Military Order of Merit (figs. 13 and 14), founded in 1807, by the Grand Duke Charles Frederick, has three classes. Grand Crosses, Commanders, and Knights. The badge of the Order is of three different sizes, and consists of a white enamelled Maltese cross surrounded with a laurel-wreath, beneath a golden crown (fig. 14). On the face is a red central shield, in which is the name-cypher of the founder in gold, surrounded by a blue ring, with the circumscription, Für Badens Ehre (For Baden’s Honor). The reverse has a similar shield with like border, upon which, in a field of dead gold, is displayed a silver griffin ready for fight, holding a shield with the arms of Baden in the left, and a sword in the right claw. The order is worn from a red and yellow striped ribbon by Grand Crosses, en echarpe, from left to right; by Commanders, en sautoir, and by Knights, at the breast. Grand Crosses and Commanders (if generals) bear upon the breast a silver star (fig. 13), with four principal rays, and four smaller intermediate rays, the central shield of which is like that on the reverse of the order.

The Military Merit Medal (fig. 15) was established at the same time with the Order of Charles Frederick, and is designed for non-commissioned officers and privates. It displays on the face, in gold or silver, an armed griffin, holding in the left claw a shield with the oblique bar of Baden and a sword in the right and the circumscription. Für Badens Ehre; on the reverse, the inscription Dem Tapfern (To the Brave), and beneath, the name of the bearer. The Medal is worn from the narrow ribbon of the Charles Frederick Order. The holders of the silver medal have an addition of half, those of a gold medal of full pay, which after they leave the service remains to them as a pension for life.

Electorate of Hesse. The Military Merit Order (pl. 31, fig. 16) was founded in 1729 by Landgrave Frederick II. and organized anew in 1820. The Order has only one class. The badge of the Order is a gold, pink enamelled Maltese cross, in the angles of which are crowned lions of gold. The face displays, in the upper field of the cross, the name-cypher W K, in gold, and in the other three fields the inscription, Virtuti. The reverse is smooth. The cross is covered with a royal crown, and is worn en sautoir from a sky-blue ribbon with white pearl woven border.

The Medal of Honor and Remembrance (fig. 17) the Elector Wilhelm II. instituted on the 14th of March, 1821, for the warriors who had made with him the campaigns of 1814 and 1815. This is, for combatants, of gun-metal, for non-combatants, of cast iron. The face bears, in a laurel wreath, the inscription, K. W. II. seinen tapfern Hessen (to his brave Hessians), 1821, and the reverse, a cross resting on an oak wreath, with the circumscription, Gott brack des Feindes Macht und Hessen war hefreit (God broke the enemy’s strength and Hesse was freed). Upon the cross lies a laurel wreath, over which stands a knight’s helmet, and in the wreath the dates 1814, 1815. Combatants wear the medal from a blue, red-bordered ribbon 1\(\frac{1}{2}\) inches wide; non-combatants from a white ribbon red-bordered.

Grand Duchy of Hesse. The Military Service Decoration (pl. 31, fig. 18) was established on the 26th December, 1833, by the Grand Duke Louis II., and consists, for officers, of a gold, for non-commissioned officers and soldiers, of a silver cross, on the face of which is an L with a crown; on the reverse, the words, XXV Jahre treuer Dienste (25 years of faithful service). The cross is worn at the breast, from a crimson ribbon with white borders. In bestowing it years of campaign count double. For fifty years’ service the cross receives curved corners, a crown, and instead of the XXV the figure L.

The Field Service Token (fig. 19) was instituted 14th June, 1840, for all those who have made a campaign in the Hessian service, and consists of a bronze medal, having on its face an L with a crown and the inscription, Gestiftet am 14 Juni, 1840 (Founded 14th June, 1840); on the reverse, the words, Für treuen Dienst im Kriege (For faithful service in war). The medal is worn from a crimson ribbon with white borders.

Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. The Order of the White Falcon (fig. 22) was founded in 1732 by Duke Ernest Augustus, as the Order of Watchfulness, and renewed in 1815 by the Grand Duke Charles Augustus. It consists of three classes. Grand Crosses, 25 Commanders, and 50 Knights. The badge of the Order is a golden, white enamelled falcon, upon a golden, green enamelled Maltese cross. In the angles appear four red points, white enamelled at the ends. On the reverse the cross is white, the points green enamelled. In the centre is a blue enamelled shield with the motto Vigilando ascendimus, bordered with a gold laurel-wreath, with armatures for the military, and covered by a gold crown. Above the star is a crown-royal of gold. Grand Crosses wear this Order from a broad, deep red, silk ribbon, en echarpe, from right to left, and also a silver, eight-pointed star, on which lies the green cross of the order, with a gold central shield in which the falcon appears. The central shield has a circular blue border, with the motto, Vigilando ascendimus. The order has also a golden collar, which is composed of golden falcons and the name-cyphers E. A. and C. A. The Commanders wear the order en sautoir; the Knights have it smaller and from a narrow ribbon at the button-hole.

Duchy of Saxe-Coburg Gotha. The Order of the Saxe-Ernestine House (fig. 23), founded 1833 for Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Altenburg, and Saxe-Meiningen-Hildburghausen by Dukes Frederick, Ernest, and Bernhard Erich Freund, as a renewal of the Order of German Honesty, established by Ernest the Pious in 1690, consists of Grand Crosses, twelve Commendators of the first and eighteen of the second class, and thirty-six Knights. The badge of the Order is a gold, white enamelled Maltese cross, between the arms of which are golden lions, two marked with black and two with white. On the face is a round gold shield, with the bust of Ernest the Pious in gold, and, in a blue enamelled margin, the inscription, Fideliter et constanter, about which is wound a green gold-bound oak wreath. The central shield of the reverse displays the arms of the House of Saxe, border and wreath as before, but as inscription, 25 December, 1833. Above the cross is a gold crown. For foreigners, the oak wreath is left out; for the military, it becomes a laurel wreath, and the cross rests upon two crossed swords. For the duchy which belonged to the founder, the upper arm of the cross bears his name. The order is of three sizes. Grand Crosses wear it from a hand-broad, red, green-bordered ribbon, en echarpe, from the right, and with it an embroidered eight pointed star, the points alternately of gold and silver, on which lies the white Maltese cross, with a gold central shield bearing the green rue-crown. In the blue border, about which is wound a green oak wreath (wanting for foreigners), stands, the device, Fideliter et constanter. The Commendators wear the order en sautoir, and the first class have also, on the left breast, the cross from the order-star of the Grand Crosses. The Knights wear the order from a narrow ribbon at the breast.

Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg. The Cross of Distinction for Service for Officers (pl. 31, fig. 24) founded by Duke Joseph Frederick Ernest in 1836 for those officers who had served the state honorably for twenty-five years, is a silver cross, with gold border and a gold central shield, having on one side the cypher J. F. E. under a crown, on the other, XXV., and is worn from a green, silver-bordered ribbon, one and a half inches wide, on the breast.

The War Medal for 1814 (fig. 25) was instituted by Duke Ernest in 1816. The medal is of silver, and has for inscription, Dem Vertheidiger des Vaterlandes (To the defenders of the fatherland), 1814; and the circumscription, Ernst H. z. S. C. S. The reverse displays a Maltese cross in an oak wreath. The ribbon is green and white striped.

Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen. The War Medal for 1814 (fig. 26), established by Duchess Louise Eleonora in 1816, is of silver, and displays on one side a Maltese cross, surrounded by an oak wreath, on the other the inscription, Dem Vertheidiger des Vaterlandes. 1814; and the circumscription, Louise Eleonore v. H. z. S. O. V. u. L. R., Obervormünderin (Chief Guardian) and Landesregentin (Regent). The ribbon is striped green and white.

Duchy of Saxe-Hildburghausen. The War Medal for 1814–15 (pl. 31, fig. 27), established in 1816 by Duke Frederick of Saxe-Altenburg for the then Hildburghausen troops, is in all respects like the last described, only having the superscription, Friedrich H. z. S. H.

Duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. War Medal for 1814–15 (fig. 28), established in 1816 by Duke Emilius Leopold Aug. of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg: for the privates of gun-metal, for officers gilded, having on one side the Altenburg rose, on the other a prince’s crown, with the circumscription, Im Kampfe für das Recht (In Battle for the Right). On the edge stands, Herzogthum Gotha und Altenburg. MDCCCXIV. MDCCCXV. The ribbon is green, with yellow and black border.

Duchy of Brunswick. The Order of Henry the Lion (fig. 31), founded in 1834 by Duke William, in memory of his grandfather Charles William Ferdinand, consists of four classes: Grand Crosses, Commanders of the first and second class, and Knights. The badge of the Order is a golden, blue enamelled Maltese cross, adorned with gold balls at the points, and with a red central shield. Upon the face of the cross is the helmet of the Brunswick escutcheon, with its crest, so arranged that the helmet lies upon the lower arm; the crowned pillar, with the galloping horse and the two sickles, on the central shield; the peacocks’ tails on the three remaining arms. In the angle of the upper arm, between two laurel branches, is the golden Lion of Brunswick, under a ducal crown. In the angles of the cross, between the arms, is the name-cypher, W., surmounted by a crown. On the reverse of the cross, in the red central shield, stands the motto, Immota fides, in gold; and in the golden border, the date, MDCCCXXXIV. The order is of three sizes. Grand Crosses wear it en echarpe, from left to right, from a broad, red, yellow bordered ribbon, and with it a star with silver rays, on which lies the golden, blue enamelled cross of the Order, having a silver central shield, with the golden name-cypher, W., with a crown, and bearing the motto, Immota fides, in its red edge. They have also a golden collar, in which, between two chains, the Brunswick escutcheon (Brunswick and Lüneburg), surrounded with standards, alternates between two lions and a round field. This field is of silver, with the solden name-cypher W., with the crown, and has a red border, with the inscription, Immota fides. Commanders wear the Order en sautoir, and the first class have besides, the Maltese cross of the order embroidered in silver on the left breast, with the crowned name-cypher in the angles, in gold, and a red central shield, bearing the motto, Immota fides, and on its golden verge, the date, MDCCCXXXIV. Knights wear the small cross at the breast, from a ribbon one and a half inches wide.

The Waterloo Medal (pl. 31, fig. 29a) was established in 1818 for the troops who had fought through the campaign against France, by the Protectoral (English) Government. This medal displays on one side the bust of Duke Frederick William, with the circumscription, Friedrich Wilhelm, Herzog (Duke), and on the other the date, 1815, in a laurel wreath, with the circumscription, Braunschweig seinen Kriegern: Quatrehras und Waterloo (Brunswick to her brave Warriors). The medal is worn from a bright yellow ribbon with sky-blue border. The name and rank of the bearer stand on the edge.

The Service-Distinction Cross for Officers (fig. 29b). This decoration for from ten to twenty-five years’ service, was established by Duke William, April 7, 1830. Officers who have served twenty-five years and upwards received a golden, deep red and black enamelled cross, whose white enamelled central shield bears on the face a W, with a crown, and on the reverse the number 25, and which is worn at the breast from a royal blue, yellow bordered ribbon. Non-commissioned officers and soldiers receive at the same ribbon, for twenty-five years’ service, a silver cross, with name-cypher and number as the preceding, and rays in the angles; for twenty years’ service, a silver cross without rays, with cypher and the number 20; for fifteen years’ service, a silver buckle, with the number 15; for ten years’ service, an iron, silver bordered buckle, with the number 10.

Duchy of Nassau. The Military Service Decoration (fig. 30) was established in 1834 by Duke William, and consists, for officers who have served twenty-five years honorably, of a golden cross, which has on the face the name-cypher of the Duke in the central field, and on the arms of the cross the words, XXV treue Dienstjahre; on the central field of the reverse the inscription, 25. Februar, 1834; and is worn at the breast from a sky-blue ribbon. Non-commissioned officers and privates receive the same cross in silver, but of three classes, for twenty-two, sixteen, and ten years’ service, with corresponding numbers. The first class has the ribbon like the officers, but for the second it has a border of one, and for the third, of two golden yellow stripes.

Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg. The Military Service Cross (fig. 32) was established in 1831 by the Grand Duke Paul Frederick of Mecklenburg, for such of the military as had served faithfully twenty-five, twenty, fifteen, and ten years. It consists of a simple cross, which for the first class is of silver, with a gold shield; for the second, of silver; for the third, of bronze, with silver shield; and for the fourth, entirely of bronze. The shield has on one side the name-cypher P. F. M., under a crown; on the other, the number of years’ service. Officers and officials in that rank bear a gold cross, but all classes wear it at the breast from a crimson silk ribbon with blue and gold border.

Grand Duchy of Oldenburg. The Military Honor Cross (fig. 33) for twenty-five years’ service, was established by the Grand Duke Augustus on the 24th December, 1838. For officers, it is of gold, for non-commissioned officers and privates of silver, having in its central field on one side the number XXY., on the other the letters P. F. A., under a crown, and is worn from a crimson ribbon with sky-blue border. The cross bestows increased pay and pension.

Grand Duchy of Anhalt-Köthen. The War Medal for 1813–15 (fig. 34) was established in 1819 for those who had fought through the above mentioned campaigns in the army of Köthen without reproach. It is of iron, and has on one side, over two oak branches, the inscription, Den Vaterlandsvertheidigern, 1813, 1814, 1815; and on the other the name-cypher of Duke Louis, over two laurel branches and under a crown. The numbers change according to the campaigns made. The medal is worn from a half white half leaf green ribbon.

Duchy of Anhalt-Dessau. The Cross for Volunteers of 1813–15 (fig. 35). As early as 1815, the volunteers of Anhalt-Dessau were permitted to wear, as a distinction, a green ribbon with deep red and white border; in the year 1823 a bronze cross was added to this, having on one side the inscription, Anhalt’s tapfern Kriegern (to the brave warriors of Anhalt), 1813, 1815; and on the other a ducal crown, with the letters L. F. Franz, H. u. A. The four quarters of a green laurel wreath lie between the arms of the cross.

V. Plate 32: Military Orders of Many Lands
Engraver: Henry Winkles

France. Order of the Legion of Honor (pl. 32, fig. 1). The first institution of this falls in the year 1802 (2d May), and the order has maintained itself through all storms and revolutions to the present time, but the decoration has undergone occasional changes. The number of Grand Crosses amounts to 80, Grand Officers 140, Commanders 400, Officers 2000; the number of Knights is unlimited. The bestowal of the order is restricted by very exact conditions. The badge of the Order is a white enamelled, gold, five armed Maltese cross, with gold balls at the points. In the golden central field is the bust of Henry IV. within a blue border, the inscription, Henri IV., and two laurel twigs. The central shield of the reverse displays a stand of French colors, and in the blue margin the circumscription, Honneur et patrie. The cross lies on a green enamelled wreath, half of laurel, half of oak leaves, and over it is a crown. The order is of two sizes; the smaller is for the officers: the Knights have a star, on the central field of which all is of silver which for the officers is of gold. The Grand Crosses wear the order en echarpe from right to left, from a broad red ribbon, and with it, on the left breast, a silver embroidered star, which is formed like the order, but has a silver central shield with the gold bust, and a gold margin with the inscription, Honneur et patrie. Instead of wreaths there are stands of tricolored flags in the angles. The Grand Officers wear the order en sautoir, and the star; Commanders, only the order en sautoir; Officers and Knights, the order at the breast.

The Cross of July (pl. 32, fig. 2) was instituted on the 30th December, 1830, by Louis Philippe, in remembrance of the days of July. It is a three-armed silver Maltese cross; the round central shield has three bands of blue, white, and red in succession, with, on one side, in the red band, the words, Patrie et liberté, in the blue, a gold field, with the Gallic cock, and on the other side, in the red band, the words, Donne par le Roi des Français; in the blue, 27, 28, 29 Juillet; and in the white, 1830. The cross is surrounded by an oak wreath (green enamelled), and hangs by this from a mural crown. The riband from which the cross is worn at the breast is royal blue, with red border.

Kingdom of Great Britain. The Order of St. Michael and St. George (fig. 3) was founded in 1818, by George III., for the Ionian Islands; altered by George IV. in 1826; and again changed and enlarged by William IV. in 1832. It consists of three classes: fifteen Grand Crosses, twenty Commanders, twenty-eight Cavaliers, natives of Great Britain or Ireland, Companions. Yet this number is not rigidly adhered to. The order confers personal nobility. The badge of the Order consists of a seven armed, golden, white enam.elled Maltese cross, under a king’s crown of gold; for clerical members, under a bishop’s mitre. The golden central shield displays on the face the Chevalier St. George on horseback with the Dragon; on the other side, the Archangel St. Michael with the Dragon. Both sides are surrounded with a blue enamelled border, which bears the device of the order: Auspicium melioris ævi. Grand Crosses wear the order en echarpe, from a ribbon of blue and crimson in three equal stripes, and with it a seven pointed, silver embroidered star, like the order, on the breast. Between each two points is a bundle of golden rays. In this star the seventh point is under. On it lies a simple red, gold bordered cross, on the central field of which the Archangel Michael appears, and which is surrounded by a blue border, containing the device of the Order: Auspicium melioris ævi. The golden collar has in the middle two lions of St. Mark, with bundles of seven arrows, and over them the English royal crown; then follows on the left the cypher, S. M., and on the right, S. G.; then on each side a white enamelled, gold Maltese cross, and next the English lion. Above and below, gold chains unite the different pieces. Commanders wear the order en sautoir, and a recumbent Maltese cross in silver, with silver rays between the arms, on the breast. On this star is a cross as on the star of the Grand Crosses. Chevaliers wear the order from a narrow riband at the breast.

The Military Decoration (pl. 32, fig. 4) has various badges: for higher officers, medals; then medals with slides, crosses, and crosses with slides. The simple medal is for the first battle, for the next the slide is added. After four battles comes a golden cross (fig. 4), which has in the centre the English lion over a laurel branch, and in the four corners the names of the battles. To this is added again slides with the names of new battles, and England has officers with the cross and seven slides. Medals and crosses are worn from a deep red riband with sky-blue border.

Russian Empire. The Royal Imperial Order of the White Eagle (fig. 5), it is said, was founded in 1325 by King Wladislaus V. of Poland. King Augustus renewed it in 1705. At the partition of Poland in 1795, it seemed to expire; but when King Frederick Augustus became in 1807 Duke of Warsaw, he again renewed it, and subsequently the Emperor Nicholas made it a Russian Order. The badge consists of a golden, red enamelled Maltese cross, with gold balls at the points, on which is displayed a white enamelled eagle with outspread wings. This cross lies upon a golden, black enamelled hexagon, within which is a golden triangle, whose points touch the hexagon. The whole of this lies upon the Russian double-headed black eagle, of gold, black enamelled, and this hangs by two chains from the Russian imperial crown. There is only one class, and the order is worn en echarpe from a broad sky-blue riband. With this is worn upon the breast a golden eight pointed star, with a gold central shield, upon which lies a gold cross with wide red border. The central shield has a blue border, with the inscription, Pro fide, rege et lege. The members of the Order are named by letters in the Emperor’s own hand.

The Royal Imperial Military Service Decoration was founded by King Stanislaus Augustus of Poland, but afterwards, when the king acceded to the congregation of Targowitz, suppressed, and first renewed on the 26th December, 1807, by King Frederick Augustus of Saxony, Duke of Warsaw, with all the rest of the Polish orders. The Emperor Alexander made it the third Polish order. After the Polish Revolution it became a Russian order, and was divided into five classes, but must no longer be conferred. The badge of the order for Grand Crosses and Commanders is a gold, black enamelled cross, with balls at the points, and the silver inscription, Virtuti militari. The gold central field displays, in a green laurel wreath, the White Eagle of Poland. Above the cross is the royal crown. Grand Crosses wear the order, en echarpe, from a blue riband with black border, and with it on the breast, an eight pointed silver star, bearing the cross of the Order. Commanders of the first class wear the order en sautoir, and with the star, of the second class without. Knights of the first class have a small gold cross (pl. 32, fig. 6), on whose four arms stand the letters S. A. R. P. (Stan. Aug. Rex. Pol.), and in the central field the words, Rex et patria. The cross is worn at the breast from a narrow blue riband with black borders. For Knights of the second class the cross is of silver.

The Ottoman Empire. The Order of the Crescent, founded in 1799 by Sultan Selim III. in honor of the victory at Aboukir, and first conferred on Nelson, consists of three classes, and is only given to foreigners for services rendered to the Porte. The badge of the Order is a round gold medal, upon whose red enamelled central shield is seen the Turkish crescent-moon and a star in diamonds surrounded by rays. The reverse displays, on a like red central shield, the name-cypher of Selim III. in gold. The order is worn by Knights of the first class from a broad, red silk riband, en echarpe, from the right, and with it, on the left breast, an eight-pointed star embroidered in silver (fig. 7), upon which lies the badge of the order, but in oval. Knights of the second class wear the order en sautoir; of the third class at the breast, from a narrow riband, and the moon and star are of silver only.

The Medal of Honor (pl. 32, fig. 8), which Selim III. likewise distributed, after the battle of Aboukir, is like the Order of the Crescent, but entirely of gold, and worn from a ribbon of golden yellow.

Kingdom of Persia. The Order of the Sun-Lion (fig. 9) was founded by Feth Ali Schah in 1808, after the example of the Turkish Order of the Crescent, is conferred likewise on foreigners, and has two classes, Stars and Medals. The badge is a golden, white enamelled, six-pointed, rounded star with golden balls, which rests upon a green enamelled wreath of palm leaves. The central field displays the rising sun, and on the reverse, a couchant lion. It is worn from a flame-colored riband about the neck. The medal is of gold, and displays only the central field of the star; it is worn at the. breast.

Kingdom of Spain. The Military Order of St. Ferdinand (fig. 10) was established in 1811 by the Cortes-General, and renewed in 1815 by Ferdinand VII., in somewhat altered form, as Order of Military Merit. It has five classes, which can contain only officers of designated grades. The insignia are a gold, white enamelled, Maltese cross with gold balls. The golden central field displays the figure of St. Ferdinand enamelled in colors, and the blue border contains the words, Al Merito Militar. For the higher classes the cross has a laurel wreath in its angles, and for the two highest a laurel wreath above also. It is worn from a deep red riband with gold-yellow border. The Star of Grand Crosses is likewise a Maltese cross, like the order, but embroidered in gold and having gold lilies in the angles. The central field is that of the order, only rather larger. First class, star and order with two wreaths, en echarpe. Second class, order with two wreaths, en sautoir. Third class, order with two wreaths, at the breast. Fourth class, order with one wreath, at the breast. Fifth class, order without wreath, at the breast.

Crosses of Honor for military distinction are very numerous. Fig. 11 shows that for the battle of Talavera de la Reyna, which was established by the Spanish Council of Regency in 1810. It is a gold, white enamelled, Maltese cross, with golden balls under a royal crown, and bears the inscription, Talavera, 28 de Julio de 1809. It is worn from a half black, half deep-red riband.

Kingdom of Portugal. The Order of Avis (pl. 32, fig. 12), called formerly of Evora, was founded by the first King of Portugal and changed in 1162 into an Order of Spiritual Knighthood, but by Queen Maria in 1780 made a secular Order of Military Merit, and has 6 Grand Crosses, 49 Commanders, and an unlimited number of Knights. The badge is a gold, bright green enamelled, lily-cross, above which is an eight-pointed" gold star, with golden rays in the angles. On the star is a gold central shield, upon which lies a red, blazing heart, surrounded with a crown of thorns; in the flames of the heart is a gold, black enamelled cross. The order is worn by the Grand Crosses from a leaf-green riband en echarpe, and with it, on the breast, embroidered in silver, a sun with a white, gold-bordered central shield, on which lies the green lily-cross, but over the shield the flaming heart with the cross. Commanders wear the order en sautoir, Knights smaller, at the breast.

Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.The Order of Francis I. (fig. 13) was founded by Francis I., the 23d Sept. 1829. The Order has three classes, Grand Crosses, Commanders, and Knights. The badge of the Order is a gold, white enamelled, Maltese cross under a crown royal; in the angles of this are four Bourbon lilies in gold; the golden central shield contains, on the face, in a green laurel wreath, the letters F. I. under a crown; on the reverse, the words, Franc. I. instituit, 1829. The blue border of the central shield contains the words, De rege optime merito. The order is worn from a deep-red riband with blue border. The Star of Grand Crosses is in all respects like the order, without the crown, and is embroidered in silver.

Kingdom of Sardinia. The Royal Military Order of Savoy (fig. 14), founded by King Victor Emanuel in 1815 for military only, has four classes, Grand Crosses, Commendators, Knights, and holders of the silver cross (non-commissioned officers and soldiers). The badge of the Order for the three first classes is a golden, white-enamelled, St. Lazarus cross, in the angles of which appear the arms of a golden, green enamelled. Maltese cross with balls at the points, under a golden king’s-crown. Grand Crosses wear this from a broad, green riband, en echarpe, and with it a silver-embroidered, eight-pointed star, adorned with the cross of the Order without the crown. Commanders wear the order en sautoir: Knights at the breast. The badge of the Order for the fourth class is wholly of silver, with gold edges, and a rosette instead of the crown. The Military Medal established by Charles Albert in 1833, is given in gold and silver. The face displays. between two laurel branches, a round shield with a cross and a king’s crown over it. The circumscription reads, Al valore militare. The reverse (pl. 32, fig. 15) contains between two laurel branches the name of the possessor. The medal is worn from a blue silk riband.

Papal States. The Order of St. Gregory, founded in 1831 by Pope Gregory XVI., has Grand Crosses of the first and second class, Commanders, and Knights. The badge of the Order is a golden, red enamelled Maltese cross with golden balls. The blue central shield displays the golden bust of St. Gregory, and in the golden border the inscription, S. Gregorius magnus. Over the cross the military have a golden trophy, civilians a green oak-branch. Grand Crosses of the first class wear the order from a red, yellow bordered riband, en echarpe, from the right, and on the breast an eight-pointed star, silver embroidered, with the badge of the Order (fig. 16). Grand Crosses of the second class wear the order en sautoir with the star; Commanders, the order only, en sautoir; and Knights, the order, at the breast, and smaller.

Grand Duchy of Tuscany. The Silver Military Medal (fig. 17) was established in 1815 for non-commissioned officers and soldiers. The face contains the bust of the Grand Duke Ferdinand III. with a circumscription; the reverse, in a laurel wreath, the words, Ai prodi e fedeli Toscani, 1815. It is worn from a riband half red, half white.

Kingdom of Greece. The Order of the Redeemer, founded by King Otho in 1833, has five classes: 12 Grand Crosses, 20 Grand Commanders, 30 Commanders, 120 Knights of the gold, and an unlimited number of the silver cross. The badge of the Order consists of a white enamelled Maltese cross, covered with the royal crown. The centre of the cross, surrounded with a green wreath of oak and laurel, displays, in a blue field, the Greek cross with the Bavarian centre shield, and in the blue border the words, Ἡ ΔΕΞΙΑ ΣΟΥ ΧΕΙΡ ΚΥΡΙΕ ΔΕΔΟΞΑΣΤΑΙ ΕΝ ΙΣΧΥΙ (Lord, thy right hand is glorious in power). The reverse displays the bust of the founder, with the circumscription (in Greek), Otho, King of Greece. The silver cross is precisely like the gold in shape, but has everywhere silver instead of gold. Grand Crosses wear the order from a broad, blue, white bordered riband, en echarpe, from the left, and on the left breast a star (pl. 32, fig. 18), which is embroidered with eight long and forty short rays, and upon which rests the badge of the Order, so changed that the motto is not upon the cross but on a broad blue border around the same. Commanders of the first class wear the order en sautoir, and a somewhat smaller cross on the right breast. Commanders, the cross alone, somewhat larger than the Knight’s cross, en sautoir; Knights, the cross, on the left breast.

Kingdom of Belgium. The Order of Leopold (fig. 19) was founded on the 11th July, 1832, by King Leopold, and has four classes: Grand Crosses, Commanders, Officers, and Knights. The decoration is a golden, white enamelled Maltese cross, with balls at the points, which are united by an oak and laurel wreath. In the centre is a black enamelled shield with a red, gold-edged border, which contains on the face the name-cypher of the king, consisting of two L’s and two R’s, on the reverse the Belgian lion. The face of the border contains, the device L’union fait la force; the reverse two laurel branches. Over the cross is a royal crown, and for companions who belong to the military two crossed swords below this. The riband is of deep red silk and of three widths, as the decoration is of three sizes. The golden collar for Grand Crosses consists alternately of a crown with the Belgian lion on each side, and the double name-cypher of the king between two chains. Grand Crosses wear the decoration en echarpe from the right, and on the left breast a silver eight-pointed star, with the central shield of the decoration (with the lion), which for military rests upon two crossed swords. Commanders wear the decoration en sautoir, and at the same time in silver and colors (for military resting on two crossed swords), embroidered on the left breast. Officers and knights wear the cross from a narrow riband at the breast.

Kingdom of Sweden. The Seraphim Order (fig. 20) is said to have been founded by King Magnus I. in 1280, and was renewed by King Frederick I. in 1748, and increased under Charles XIII. The Order has only one class, and the candidate for it must have received already the Orders of the Sword, and of the North Star. The decoration is a golden, white enamelled Maltese cross, with balls, under a royal crown. The lozenge-shaped, blue central shield, contains on the face the letters I. H. S. (Jesus Hominum Salvator), over the centre of which stands a cross, and on the reverse the words, Fredericus rex Sueciæ. The central field is surrounded by four golden seraphim heads and four golden patriarchs’ crosses. The decoration is worn from a broad blue riband en echarpe from the right. With it, on the left breast, a silver Maltese cross, with a round, blue, central shield, which contains the above-mentioned letters, &c., in white, with gold edges, and also three gold crowns, two above, one below, and under these three gold nails. On the arms of the cross lie the four silver patriarchs’ crosses, and between the arms the four silver seraphim heads. The golden collar, for festal occasions, consists of gold seraphim heads, and blue, gold-edged patriarch crosses alternately between the chains. Grand officers wear the order en sautoir and the star. Lower officers the cross on the breast. There is a peculiar Order costume for ceremony.

The Medal for Bravery in the Field (pl. 32, fig. 21) is of gold for officers, for the rank and file of silver, is worn on the breast from a yellow, blue bordered riband, and contains on the face, between the laurel branches, the words, För Tapjmrhet i Fält (For bravery in the field); and on the reverse, also between two laurel branches, the name of the holder and the date of bestowal.

Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Military Order of William (fig. 22) was founded by King William in 1815, and has four classes; Grand Crosses, Commanders, Knights of the third and fourth classes. The decoration is a golden, white enamelled Maltese cross, under a king’s crown, in the angles of which lie four green enamelled laurel twigs; for grand crosses this Maltese cross displays a blue central shield, in which, between two golden laurel twigs, stands the letter W. For other classes, instead of the central shield, there is a gold, or white enamelled gold bordered fire steel; knights of the fourth class, however, for whom the cross and crown are of silver, have the blue central shield with the name-cypher upon the cross. On the arms of the cross stands the device, Voor Moed Beleid Trouw (For Courage, Conduct, Truth). Grand Crosses wear the decoration en echarpe from a broad, orange silk riband, with two narrow blue stripes at the sides, and with it on the breast an eight-pointed silver star, upon which is the decoration of the Order (with the gold fire steel). Commanders wear the decoration en sautoir and embroidered on the left breast, after fig. 22; knights of the third and fourth classes from a narrow riband at the button hole.

The Medal for Faithful Service (fig. 23) was established by King William in 1825, for 12 and 24 years’ service, and is worn in bronze and silver from an orange colored riband. It displays on one side the Netherlandish arms with the inscription, Voor trouwen Dienst, on the other the name-cypher W. on a royal mantle, under a crown.

Kingdom of Denmark. The Order of the Elephant (pl. 32, fig. 24), one of the most distinguished of European orders, is said to have been founded by King Canute VI. It was renewed by King Christian I. in 1458. According to the latest statutes of Christian V. of 1693, there are, besides the princes, only 30 knights. The decoration is a white enamelled elephant, with gold tusks, and blue, gold seamed housing and girths. Upon the housing lies a cross of five large table-diamonds; the elephant carries a red enamelled tower, set forth with brilliants. The decoration is worn en echarpe from the left, from a broad sky blue riband. With it belongs a silver star with four long rays, four of half the length and thirty-two short, with a round, gold, central field, upon which two laurel branches form a silver wreath, inclosing a red field with a cross of ten brilliants. The golden collar, for festal occasions, consists of golden elephants with blue housings, having the letter D, alternating with gold towers, between two gold chains.

The Danebrog Order (pl. 31, figs. 20, 21) is said to have originated as early as 1279; in 1690 it was renewed; and made by Frederick VI., in 1808, an Order of Merit. The Order has four classes: Grand Commanders, Grand Crosses, Commanders of the Order, and Knights. Besides these, there has been since 1809 a fifth class, the Danebrogsmen, who wear the decoration of silver entirely. This cross is given even to the knights and higher classes of the Danebrog Order as a new favor, and worn in addition to the decoration of the Order. The decoration is an oblong, golden white enamelled cross, with wide red border. In the angles of the cross, placed over the corner, are four golden royal crowns, and above the cross the golden name-cypher, F. R. VI., surmounted by the royal crown. The face bears, on the arms of the cross, the inscription, Gud og Kongen (God and the King), and in the centre a W under a crown; the reverse has likewise a W under a crown in the centre, and the dates 1279 on the left, 1671 on the right, and 1808 above. This is the knight’s cross, and is worn at the left breast, from a white riband 1\(\frac{1}{2}\) inches wide, with red borders. The Commanders of the order wear the same a little larger en sautoir. Grand Crosses have a cross like that of the knights, but without the name-cypher and crown, and the white enamelled part is replaced by fourteen brilliants. This cross is worn en echarpe from a broad white riband with red borders, and with it on the left breast the decoration of the Order embroidered, a white, gold bordered cross, with the full inscription in gold, about this a red border, and round that again gold pearls. Grand Commanders wear the insignia of the Order entirely in brilliants (fig. 21), the cross red, edged with gold, bordered, en sautoir, and on the left breast a silver embroidered star (fig. 20) bearing the decoration of the Order for Grand Crosses.

Empire of Brazil. The Order of the Southern Cross (pl. 32, fig. 25), founded by the Emperor Don Pedro I. in 1822, and for ladies also, has four classes: Grand Crosses, Dignitaries, Officers, and Knights. The decoration of the Order is a golden, white enamelled, five armed cross, set with balls at the points, upon a golden, green enamelled laurel wreath, the middle point under, surmounted by the imperial crown. The golden central field displays the bust of Don Pedro I., and has a blue border, with the inscription, Peirus I. Brasiliæ imperator. The reverse of the central shield displays four golden stars, and in the blue border the device, Præmium bene merentium. The cross is of three sizes, and is worn by Grand Crosses from a broad blue riband en echarpe from the right; by Dignitaries large; by Officers smaller en sautoir; and by Knights the smallest size, with a buckle at the breast. Grand Crosses, Dignitaries, and Officers have besides a gold five-rayed star embroidered on the left breast, the middle point under and over the star an imperial crown. Upon the blue, circular, central shield are four golden stars, and in the blue border stands the device, Præmium bene merentium.

Military Engines in General. Projectiles.


Before gunpowder was invented, and the enormous force with which it projects a missile was known, no other power was available, of course, for war machines, than that produced by the immediate application of human strength, increased in some cases by the intervention of mechanical aids. These mechanical aids were chiefly the power of the lever and of the spring. In the war engines of antiquity we have to do with these alone.

The implements of which the ancients made use in war and in sieges may be most simply divided into: a, darting and slinging engines; b, battering engines; c, machines for transport; and d, implements for defence.

a. Projectile Engines. To these belong catapults and ballistæ, which with the ancients took the place of artillery. They are divided into those where the power of the spring and those where the power of the lever was used. The first, the catapults, took the place of our cannon; they served to project arrows or balls in a direct line or with slight elevation; the latter, with which stones and fragments of rock were projected in lofty curves, took the place of our mortars, and were called ballistæ. The later Roman authors have constantly confounded these two names, have even applied them both as synonymous with catapult, and given to the ballista the name of onager. By the Greeks, however, the distinction has always been strictly maintained. The smallest catapults were the scorpions. There were field and siege engines, according to their use, the latter being much the largest.

V. Plate 33: Ancient Military Engines
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The bows of the light-armed troops led to the construction of the catapult, which was indeed nothing else than a bow on a very large scale. The lightest kind of catapult was the hand catapult, the scorpion (pl. 33, fig. 3), a bow upon a light stand, which could be aimed high or low, and which was drawn at first with the hand, afterwards with a winch, as the string tightened, until it came to the trigger. The field catapult, somewhat larger, was laid upon a trestle (fig. 1). The bow was longer and heavier, and the string was stretched by the application of a double lever, which had the form of a λ. The long arm of this lever rested against a fixed point, and the shorter pressed the string back to the trigger, when the long arm was depressed. Another species of field catapult, which, however, drove its arrow only a short distance (fig. 2), has no bow, but the arrow is projected by the strong blow of a striking lever, which lies obliquely at the hinder end of the catapult. Siege catapults were designed either to discharge many arrows at once during an assault (fig. 4), or to drive great javelins and beams to a considerable distance. The first consisted of an upright plank, with cross cuts, in which feathered arrows were laid, their points resting upon movable supports at a greater or less elevation, as desired. An elastic board, fastened below, and drawn back by means af a rope at the top, struck, when let loose, against the arrows, and drove them forth. The heavy catapult (fig. 5) projected arrows of six feet in length and sixty pounds’ weight to the distance of about four hundred paces. This catapult had no proper bow, but two pieces of plank, a, a, which were inserted between strong ropes, c, c, in the main frame, and those ropes so twisted by means of the racket wheels, d, d, that the ends of these planks pressed powerfully against the cushions, m, m. If now, by means of the windlass, y, and the hook fastened to it, the bow string, which was made of twisted hide, was drawn strongly backwards, the ropes at c c were thereby still more sharply twisted together, and when the string was suddenly let loose, it drove the arrow, lying in its groove, r, r, with great violence before it. Afterwards the two pieces, a, a, were replaced by a strong steel bow. Of the ballistæ there were also lighter kinds for field use, and heavier for siege service. The field ballista (pl. 33, fig. 6) was placed upon a light car, and consisted of a strong frame, having between its uprights a twisted rope, as seen in our common wood saw; and in the twist of this rope, as the key, a ladle at the end of a strong handle. This ladle is drawn back by means of a rope, a stone laid in it, and the draw then suddenly let go, when the ladle strikes with violence against the cap of the frame, and the stone is projected with great force by the impulse it has received, with so much the greater, indeed, as the rope is more strongly twisted. Another kind of field ballista is the sling ballista (fig. 7) and (pl. 34, figs. 3, 4). Beside a groove made of planks stands a post, upon which is a cross-beam with pins at the ends; on these pins a fork moves, at the ends of which are fastened boxes loaded with weights or stones. The bow of the fork bears a long handle, reaching downwards to the groove, at the extremity of which is attached an ordinary stone sling. When, by means of a rope and small winch on the ground, the long arm of the lever is drawn down (fig. 3 and pl. 33, fig. 7) and the sling is loaded, the draw rope is let loose, and the counter weights, which have attained their highest elevation, pull the handle suddenly upwards, and thus the sling is discharged (pl. 34, fig. 4). The heavy ballistæ are like the light, only much larger. Pl. 33, figs. 8 and 9, represent such siege ballistæ. a, a, a, is the ground frame upon which the uprights, b, b, are erected, on whose cap, at e, is a projection, against which the handle, c, of the ladle, s, strikes when it flies up, to give the back stroke. The handle, c, is twisted into a rope, which is tightened on each side by means of the racket wheels, q, which are turned by the racks, x, and held in place by the stops, y. In order to set the ballista, a rope is attached just below the ladle, s, and wound round the roller, t, which is turned by handspikes, and held in place by a racket wheel. As soon as the ladle is charged, the rope is let loose and the ladle flies up (fig. 9). With such ballistæ, stones of from ten to three hundred and sixty pounds’ weight were hurled. Archimedes, indeed, constructed ballistæ which threw stones of ten hundredweight; quantities of heavy leaden balls were also discharged from the ballistæ. A smaller ballista for fire balls is shown, pl. 34, fig. 5. Fire arrows were shot by the catapult.

b. Battering Engines. The most ancient and simplest wall breachers are the wall borers, by means of which the joints of a fortress wall were penetrated, and then the stones broken out. The first borers consisted (pl. 33, fig. 11) of a spindle with a sharp iron head, which was laid upon trestles and turned by means of a winch. Later, the borer was placed in a rolling frame (fig. 10), and forced forwards by a screw against the wall. These wall augers being too slow and tedious, however, and their effects too imperfect, it was soon found better to crush, shatter, and knock out the stones, than laboriously to extricate them in this manner. For this purpose the ram was invented. The rams were long, heavy beams, frequently from fifty to one hundred feet in length, which, at the foremost end, were strongly plated with iron, this plating being usually in the form of a ram’s head. From this and the butting motion of the machine it received its name. Yet there were rams also which were mounted with one or more points. These beams were suspended in equilibrium from the top of a lofty frame by ropes (fig. 12), brought up close to the wall by means of rollers on the frame, and then, by one or several ropes attached to the hinder end, were set into a swinging motion, and thus made to strike against the wall, which by degrees was shattered and overthrown. This kind of machine was called the swinging ram, and the simplest form is shown in pl. 35, fig. 8. In another form of construction used when the beam was very long, it was laid upon a carriage with numerous rollers (pl. 33, fig. 13). This carriage ran upon a frame constructed for that purpose, and supported on a scaffold, in which frame it was pulled backwards and forwards, by means of ropes from each end passing over rollers at the ends of the frame, and thus the beam was made to strike against the wall. The battering-ram which Demetrius Poliorcetes used at the siege of Rhodes was 106 feet long; and Vespasian had, in the war against the Jews, a ram which, though only 50 feet long, was armed with a mighty iron butt of twenty-five points, each of which was as thick as a man, and two feet apart. The counter-weight at the hindmost end amounted to 1075 cwt., and 1500 men were required to work this machine. For transportation, the rams were loaded on small carriages (fig. 14), on which also they were sometimes used when the walls were weak.

V. Plate 35: Military Structures, Engines, and Formations of ancient and Medieval Times
Engraver: Henry Winkles

c. Machines of Transport. In order to bring troops upon the wall of a besieged city, or at least to bring them on a level with the breast-works and thus render an encounter with the garrison practicable before the walls were destroyed, machines of transport were employed, of a magnitude such as it is now scarcely possible for us to conceive. To these machines of transport belong, first, the draw basket (pl. 35, fig. 10), which served to convey a larger or smaller number of soldiers upon the hostile wall, and thus perhaps enable them to surprise some unguarded place. For this object a mast was planted in the ground, and at its summit a cross-beam suspended in equilibrium, after the manner of the draw-well. To the foremost end of this beam a large basket, or rather a platform with a railing, was attached, in which the warriors mounted, when, by drawing down the hinder end of the beam, the platform was elevated to the height required. To bring greater numbers of men upon a level with the battlements of the wall, and enable them to mount thereon, or to fight with the defenders at the same elevation, movable towers were erected. Such movable towers were constructed of carpenters’ work, with steps on the inside, and with a platform and battlements, set upon rollers or wheels, and by means of pulleys and windlasses moved on to the point of attack. Frequently these towers, when they were designed to effect the actual scaling of the wall by the troops, were provided with a drawbridge, which was let down as soon as the tower reached the designated spot, and thus a passage was established for the troops from the tower to the wall.

As to the construction of these movable towers, it did not differ greatly from that of a house with several stories, for they consisted of several rows of uprights, united by horizontal tie-beams, which formed the stories. The whole was made firm and strong, and so bound together within, that it could not only sustain its own weight and that of the soldiers, but endure being moved from place to place. We can scarcely conceive how it was possible to move these enormous machines upon so few wheels, for, according to the testimony of ancient authors, the largest towers had not more than eight and the smaller only four wheels. The height of the towers was regulated according to the wall which was to be attained; but there were such towers carried, in pieces, with the baggage of the army, and for which, in case their height was deficient, a mound was thrown up. The smallest towers were 120 feet in height, 34 feet wide, and usually of 10 stories: while the largest were 240 feet high, 47 feet wide, and had 20 stories. To this class belonged the tower of which Demetrius Poliorcetes made use at the siege of Rhodes (pl. 35, fig. 4), constructed by the Athenian architect Epimachus. This machine rested upon eight wheels on each side and could be moved from within, while a separate body of workmen assisted on the rear side without. The wheels had all of them trendies (antistrepta), so that the tower could be moved sideways and obliquely. At greater distances from the wall, the towers were moved by means of ropes and pulleys with wind-lasses, as our engraving shows. Every story had openings or windows, out of which beams or stones were shot, but these windows were filled with bags of skin stuffed with wool and only opened to shoot through them. Frequently the towers were provided also with exterior galleries, for bowmen and slingers, and on the ground-floor, or higher, battering-rams were placed to destroy the walls (pl. 35, fig. 5). Invariably these towers tapered off as they went up, and a drawbridge was always required to bring the troops who manned them upon the wall, as in fig. 4. Within the tower was usually a vat for water, in order to flood at once any part which might be set on fire by the fire-missiles of the foe. Sometimes the towers were not placed upon wheels, but moved by means of rollers, as that which Julius Cæsar employed at the siege of Namuronum (Namur). Usually the towers were hung, from top to bottom, with wet hides, as soon as they came within range of the enemy’s missiles, or with covers of goats’ hair, to preserve them from fire and to deaden the force of blows from the hostile shot.

Movable towers were used in later times also, and fig. 6 represents such a tower of the twelfth century; it is surrounded on the summit by a breast-work, the battlements of which formed embrasures for the projectiles then in use, some of which we shall again refer to hereafter. At the siege of Jerusalem by the Crusaders, the most important results were obtained by means of these towers. Godfrey of Bouillon, as William of Tyre relates, had three great movable towers built, whose front side, from the first story up, was double, so that when the tower reached the outer edge of the ditch, this front side formed a drawbridge long enough to reach across, was let down by ropes, fell on the hostile wall, and by its great width enabled a strong force to throw themselves upon the defenders of the rampart, supported by those stationed upon the platform of the tower (pl. 34, fig. 24). Only by means of these three towers Jerusalem fell, on the 15th July, 1099, after a siege of one month, into the hands of the Crusaders.

d. Implements of Defence. As soon as it became requisite to carry on works of long duration, entrenchments, &c., within the range of the enemy’s missiles, means were sought to protect the laborers while thus employed. The simplest defensive implements here were blinds, walls about six or eight feet high and fifteen or twenty feet long. These screens were either straight or round. The straight ones (pl. 33, fig. 17) consisted of two frames of timber-work, between which bundles of twigs (fascines) or sand bags were placed; they were supported by trestles on rollers, and moved by men or by horses according to their size, backwards or forwards as the workmen receded or advanced. The round blinds (fig. 18) consisted also of frames, but with curved foot and cap pieces, and the field of the frame was set with thick planks or logs, in front of which, fenders of hide stuffed with wool or sand were hung, rendering the enemy’s missiles ineffectual. These blinds were on rollers also, so that they might be moved when necessary.

To protect the workmen in wall-breaching, so that they should not be crushed by stones and beams hurled down upon them, the implements called tortoises were employed, structures which were covered at the sides and top. For the rolling ram these structures were simple sheds (fig. 15) standing on rollers, and moved by the persons inside up against the wall; then the frame for the ram was laid upon the floor of this shed. The tortoise for the swinging ram, however, was made much higher in front (fig. 16), as it had to protect also the lofty frame from which the ram was suspended. On the front side, and particularly on the roof, the tortoise was always hung with skins and hair covers, and these covers wetted as often as possible, to render ineffectual the enemy’s efforts to set the machines on fire. The troops themselves, in the assault, formed also a species of tortoise, for protection against the stones and other missiles hurled from above (pl. 35, fig. 11) by holding their great shields over their heads, in such manner that the edges overlapped each other some six or eight inches or more, thus forming a kind of storm-roof, of such strength, indeed., that often a second column, and sometimes a third, was supported upon it, and thus the wall or a high-lying breach was mounted. Such tortoises were used also where the ram was applied in its simplest form (fig. 8), hung merely from a simple frame which leaned against the wall.

Other implements, employed by the besieged in defence, were those called the tongs and the crow.

The tongs or forceps (fig. 9) were double shears, which were let down from the wall by a rope, and which as soon as this struck the ram, opened and grasped it, when the head was pulled upwards and the ram thus rendered useless. The simple crow was a frame, like that for the draw-basket (pl. 35, fig. 10), but having at the point one or more hooks. It stood upon the terreplein behind the wall, and when the foe attacked it was swung downwards into the thick masses, catching in its hooks one or more persons, who were thus drawn upwards, and either made prisoners or dashed to the ground. The double crow was a stand with two arms, to which a long beam was attached horizontally, so that it could be let down upon the hostile ram, and thus by destroying its balance render it ineffectual.

The Middle Ages

V. Plate 34: Military Engines of the Middle Ages
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The earlier period of the Middle Ages, immediately following the times of Antiquity, shows us, in general, the same arms and implements then in use which we have already described, yet we find them constantly more and more improved by art, and, above all, rendered more movable. The projectile engines, in the main, were the same; yet the catapults had already undergone an important alteration; the wooden arms, represented in pl. 33, fig. 5aa, having been exchanged for steel (pl. 34, fig. 1), which were fastened into the frame, and by their great spring power could work more effectually than the arms stretched by the twisted rope. These so-called springels were afterwards altered, by welding the two spring arms into a middle piece, and thus making a complete bow. The setting was effected by raising the upper part of the stock, which moved on a pivot, until the lever of the trigger caught over the string, when the trigger was pressed down, and then the stock depressed until it came into its place, when the arrow was laid on, and discharged by loosing the trigger-catch. These springels were subsequently made still smaller and more portable, and became the cross-bow, of which we have already spoken. A simple kind of springel is represented at fig. 2. To a post having notches on one side a brace is attached, resting in one or the other of the notches, and held by a pliable band, so that the arrow which lies upon the post and on this brace, can have its point depressed or elevated by setting the latter in a lower or higher notch. Behind the post a strong spring of wood or steel is fastened, at the bottom, and set by drawing the upper end downwards and backwards by means of a winch, so that when this upper end is let loose, the spring flies up and strikes with great violence against the arrow, thus driving it forth. Such springels drive arrows of six to eight feet in length, and of considerable weight, to several hundred paces’ distance.

With the invention of gunpowder the whole warfare changed, and an entirely new weapon came into use, the firearm, which, being effective at great distances, very soon completely superseded all projectile engines before employed. It must not be supposed, however, that the firearm received at once the form in which we find it at present. At first they dreaded the enormous force of the powder, whose limits they knew not, and believing it impossible that tubes so thin as the barrel of a musket could offer sufficient resistance, they employed only great pieces, and made these of unwieldy strength. After Berthold Schwarz had observed accidentally in 1280 the explosive force of powder, of which the composition had been made known by Roger Bacon as early as 1219, it soon began to be employed for military purposes, and already, in 1328, they had cannon in France. These first cannon were called Bombards (pl. 34, figs. 18, 19), or, when very short, and with a very wide mouth, mortars (figs. 15, 22). Bombards were at first of wood, bound with iron hoops, and lay upon a roller-carriage (fig. 19); then they were lined with iron-plate, strengthened with bars of iron running lengthwise the barrel, and bound with iron hoops. But, as even this could furnish no abiding resistance to the force of the powder, they constructed them entirely of forged iron, of cast iron, and at last cast them of bronze. Gustavus Adolphus, during the Thirty Years’ War, had very light pieces constructed of iron plate, strengthened with bands and bound with hoops of iron, and covered with leather, whence arose the fable of the king’s leathern cannon. Mortars were made at first of wooden staves, like casks (fig. 15), and fixed immovable upon the bed, as even now, at sieges, stone mortars are made, by hooping casks with iron, burying them in the earth, and kindling the charge from the muzzle. The bombards lay either upon fixed beds (fig. 17), upon roller-carriages (fig. 19), or, after they were made by casting, and became less unwieldy, upon a kind of frame especially for that purpose, which permitted changes in their elevation (fig. 18). All these bombards or mortars shot only stone balls or fragments of iron, and not until the year 1400 were iron balls used. Sforza had, before Piacenza, in 1447, three bombards; each of which discharged, in the twenty-four hours, sixty stone balls, and with which, in thirty days, he battered down two towers and the wall between them. In the year 1553, stone balls were still employed. The first bronze cannon were cast in 1418, and they have still, at Toulouse, a cannon cast in 1438, which throws a seven-pound ball, and weighs 1,356 pounds (our present six-pounders weigh, on the average, 900 pounds). Cannon were made at first disproportionately strong at the breech, as the 45-pound battering-gun represented on pl. 34, fig. 20, shows. Subsequently the pieces were made weaker and disproportionately long, from a belief that the longer the gun the more effective and certain was the shot. About this time also the movable carriage (the stock carriage) (fig. 21) was invented, by which the gun could be aimed in any direction, and on which it could more easily be served and transported. In this manner a kind of field-artillery was formed, of as small calibre even as two pounds, and with iron balls; while the huge wide-mouthed cannon, throwing stone balls, were used for sieges as late as the sixteenth century. It had been found out meanwhile that for stone balls a less charge was required, and that this was most effective when closely confined; whereupon, the part in which the charge was placed was made of smaller diameter (fig. 16). From these stone-pieces was derived the form of the mortar and the chambered guns of modern times, the ancient ones having in section (fig. 22) a regularly curved bore, diminishing uniformly from muzzle to breech. For bursting gates, &c., the petard was used (fig. 23), as soon as it was found out that powder, when exploded, took effect in all directions alike, and gave, therefore, a recoil. Such a petard consisted of a thick plank, the madrier, which was secured fast to the gate it was desired to burst, and to this plank a metal pot, closed on all sides and very thick, was attached, and filled with powder; a slow match, communicating with this powder, gave time, during its combustion, for the person lighting the match to escape before the explosion, the whole force of which being directed by the thick metal pot against the gate, burst that open. Such petards are still used.

After the superiority of firearms to all other projectile engines came to be generally understood, the desire became active to construct them of such weight and dimensions that they should be portable and manageable by the single individual. This was effected only by degrees, and the first step was to make cannon of very small proportions and very long, but still requiring a light carriage; these were called wall-pieces or culverines (fig. 6a). The great length of the bore and the unwieldiness of the carriage suggested the idea of loading these wall-pieces from behind. The first contrivance for this purpose was a breech-plate, which was screwed on after the charge was inserted (fig. 6b), and the gun fired by means of a red-hot wire run through an orifice in this plate. This operation, however, consumed too much time; the touch-hole was contrived, and in the breech-plate itself a breech-screw was inserted, which could be screwed in after the loading was completed (fig. 6d). Finally the tube and breech were made of one piece, and an opening cut through the upper part of the tube; through this opening the charge was introduced, and it was then closed by means of a strong grooved iron plug, in which was the touch-hole (fig. 6c) and the piece discharged. All these contrivances, however, accomplished their purposes so ineffectually, and were so insecure and destructible, that they were soon laid aside, and instead the piece made lighter and shorter. The first improvement in this way is the swivel-gun, or field-hackbut (fig. 7), which was a kind of light field-piece, but was principally used on the walls of fortresses, and in other permanent positions. As our representation shows, the stand was a tripod which could be raised or lowered, and on the head of which a fork held the gun near the centre, while its breech was supported upon an arm which was movable around the tripod, and had at the extremity a directing screw. The part of the tube which held the charge was greatly strengthened to endure the force of the powder, to secure the gunner, and to throw the whole power upon the ball. To make the direction and the aim more certain, a sight was fixed upon this reinforcement, which was brought in line with the head on the muzzle and the object to be hit.

The next step in the improvement of firearms was the removal of the piece from the fixed stand, and the first attempt of this kind was the arquebus (fig. 9). This had, instead of the carriage, a rather massive stock with a butt behind, by which it was laid to the shoulder, and in front an off-set, by which it could be caught against the wall or a post, so as to break the recoil. The touch-hole was at the side, instead of above as before, and to secure the priming from falling off the pan was placed below it. The firing was effected by means of a match. As, however, proper supports were not always to be found, and it was desired to render the gun still more portable and effective for field service, the stock was made yet lighter (fig. 8), the butt more suitably formed, and the ramrod inserted in the stock. The point of support for this still very heavy weapon, was furnished by a fork at the end of a staff shod with iron, which the musketeer, for these weapons were called muskets, always carried with him and set up in the earth whenever he wished to use his piece. The touch-hole and pan were on the left side, so that the musketeer, while he held the weapon in its rest against the shoulder with the right hand, could fire it with the match held in his left. The next improvement was the invention of the lock. The musket had been so much lightened that the musketeer could use it, held in both hands, without the prop or rest (fig. 10); but as he could not manage the match with his left hand, since that was required in taking aim, it became necessary to attach it to the piece itself For this purpose the touch-hole was brought once more to the right hand side, and a match so placed near it, that with the right hand it could be conveniently pressed down into the pan. The most ancient match-lock is represented (pl. 34, fig. 11). The match-holder turned upon a pin in the lock-plate, and had below a prolongation which formed the trigger, and which when pressed downwards by the thumb of the right hand brought the match into the priming. A small spring pressed the match back again when the priming was kindled. Afterwards the lock was differently formed (fig. 12), a simple slide being introduced, which caught on an off-set on the match-holder and moved it so as to bring the match into the priming or push it back. Meanwhile the match was perceived to be very imperfectly adapted to the purpose for which it was here employed, for if it was not withdrawn quick enough after firing, or if its position was not exactly right, the blast of the priming, with that from the touch-hole, would blow off the coal and thus extinguish the match. This difficulty led to the invention of the fire-lock. The first attempt of this kind was the wheel-lock (fig. 13), which was suggested by the fact that flint and steel struck rapidly and forcibly together would give out sparks capable of igniting gunpowder. A steel disk was added to the lock, which was connected with a spring in such a manner, that when the spring was set and the trigger pressed the disk made a sudden and rapid revolution; a flint was now applied by means of an addition for that purpose, the cock, so that it could be pressed against the steel disk at pleasure. The moment the lock was set in action the flint struck off small fragments from the iron disk, which, being heated red-hot by the friction, fell into the priming and kindled it. An improvement on this lock was made (fig. 14) by not connecting the disk immediately with the spring, but by means of a chain, so that the spring could open further, and the disk performing a whole instead of half a revolution, was thus longer in contact with the flint, and thereby the firing rendered more certain. The disk was at the same time placed higher, and was thus less liable to become foul from the burning of the powder. The cock also was provided with a spring, which, when the flint was once brought in contact with the disk, kept it there firmly during the whole revolution. The trigger was easily arranged, but the disk was wound up by a particular key for that purpose.

Modern Times

The more evident became the great advantages to be derived from the use of artillery in the field, and that to employ it there effectually it must have the utmost possible lightness and mobility, the more entirely were the former enormous calibres abandoned (for the earlier cannon threw 56, 48, and 36 pounds of iron), and a lighter artillery created, in which the loss of weight in the shot was compensated by greater rapidity in the shooting. Gustavus Adolphus, Louis XIV., Frederick II., who created the flying artillery; Napoleon, who by the employment of artillery in large masses decided his battles; are names which designate whole epochs, at once in the history of war and artillery.

Artillery and Carriages

V. Plate 36: Illustrating Modern Artillery
Engraver: Gustav Feldweg

At present the artillery in common use is composed of cannon, howitzers, and mortars, which differ from each other in outward appearance and still more in internal form. Gannon have a length of from 16 to 20 times the diameter of their ball or their calibre; howitzers are from 4\(\frac{1}{2}\) to 6, and mortars from 3 to 4 calibres in length. From cannon, balls are thrown in a direction nearly horizontal; from howitzers, shells, at a small angle; and from mortars, bombs, at a great elevation. The internal form of mortars and howitzers differs from that of cannon by their being made with a chamber, that is a part smaller than the bore of the gun, in which the comparatively small charge is placed (pl. 36, figs. 19, 20, 24, 26, 28). In modern times it has been discovered that howitzers can be used without chambers also with equal effect. Particular kinds of gun are the unicorns, schuvaloffs, and carronades, of which we shall speak hereafter.

a. Cannon. Cannon are distinguished from each other by the weight of the ball which they throw, and these are, 1-, 3-, 4-, 6-, 8-, 12-, and 24-pounders. The inner cavity of the gun (fig. 14, a b c d) is called the bore, and at the part where the charge rests, the base or breech c d, it is more or less rounded. The hinder part of the cylinder, a b c d, is called the first reinforce; the middle part, c d e f, which contains the dolphins and the trunnion L L′, the second reinforce; e f g h, the chase; g h i k, the muzzle with the mouth. The thickness of metal decreases from the breech to the mouth, from one calibre to half a calibre, and this diminution is by stages; each reinforce is connected with the adjoining by some architectural member which is called a frieze (moulding), and distinguished according to its position, as a base moulding, &c. The form of a truncated cone is also given to guns (fig. 3). Behind the first reinforce the gun receives a reinforcement which is called the cascable, with its knob and neck, the latter serving to facilitate the handling of the gun. Pl. 36 shows the different cannon of the principal powers, arranged according to their calibres, and the scale which is annexed gives the means of learning all the details of the ordinary construction. Fig. 2 shows a Bavarian 3-pounder. Of 6-pounders, the Saxon is shown in fig. 3; the Prussian, fig. 4; the Austrian, fig. 5; the Russian, fig. 6; the French, fig. 7; the English, fig. 8. Fig. 9 is a Spanish 8-pounder; fig. 10, a French. Fig. 11 a Prussian, and fig. 12 an Austrian 12-pounder. Fig. 13 a short French, and fig. 14 a Russian 24-pounder. And of the balls, fig. 38 shows a 24, fig. 39 a 12, fig. 40 an 8, and fig. 41 a 6-pound ball.

The weight of guns is usually in the proportion of 150 pounds to each pound of ball for light, and 200 pounds for heavy guns, with a charge of from \(\frac{1}{3}\) to \(\frac{1}{2}\) the weight of the ball. Field guns are from 16 to 21 calibres in length, siege and garrison guns as much as 24 calibres.

Near the end of the bore is placed the vent (fig. 14f), sometimes perpendicular, sometimes oblique to the axis. The base-astragal (or ring) and muzzle give the points of direction, by means of which the gun, which is movable upon the trunnions in the carriage, can be brought in line with the object aimed at. As the thickness of metal is materially less at the muzzle than at the breech, the moulding on the muzzle, or swell of the muzzle, is of considerable height, and upon it a small knob of metal (the dispart) is fixed, in line with a notch cut in the base-ring, and at such a level, that, when this knob, the notch on the ring, and the point of aim are in the same line, the shot will, at a certain known distance, 800 paces, for example, for 6-pounders, exactly hit the point aimed at. For greater distances a greater elevation must, of course, be taken, i. e. the breech-sight must be depressed with respect to the dispart, the degrees of variance from a due level being regulated by means of a movable piece (fig. 32) set upon the base-ring. This is cut out at b c to fit the ring, and pierced with holes at every quarter of an inch. The scale a d shows the distances to which the holes correspond, so that by looking through the proper hole and bringing the dispart (fore sight) in line with it and the object, the ball will strike at the distance required. More recently this hausse (movable sight) has been let in to the base-ring (fig. 33) and the breech-sight set upon it, so that by sliding up the stem of the hausse according to the distance, for a 6-pounder at 1000 paces one inch for instance, and there clamping it by means of a screw, aim can be taken more conveniently than when it merely stands loose upon the base-ring. The piece is discharged by applying the match to the vent, yet fire-locks have been applied (pl. 36, fig. 34), with cock a, and battery b, and in modern times percussion-locks. Both are sprung by means of a cord.

An uncommon species of gun is shown at fig. 1, viz. the 1-pounder cannon of Bernay, a newly invented hand-gun which requires no carriage. Upon a light stand, b, rests the lever, d g, which serves for handling the gun and is held under the arm by means of the handle, g. The piece itself does not weigh quite one cwt., and the recoil is broken by the interposition of a strong bent spring, like the spring of a carriage, at d c, by which the shock is received and paralysed, while the band, a, which connects the neck of the cascable with the lever, slides to and fro in the slit, e f. The Count von Bückeburg had invented, indeed, in the preceding century, for the mountain warfare in Spain, a 1-pounder cannon, which could be fired without unlimbering (pl. 38, figs. 4, 5).

b. Howitzers. Howitzers are distinguished either by the weight of a stone ball which fills their bore, or by the diameter of the iron shell which belongs to them, the howitz, which usually, however, although it is hollow, weighs as much again as the solid stone ball. Thus, for example, a 5\(\frac{1}{2}\) inch howitzer throws a howitz which weighs from 14 to 15 pounds, and is 5\(\frac{1}{2}\) inches in diameter. The solid stone ball, however, which would fill the bore, weighs only 7 pounds, so that the expressions 7-pound howitzer and 5\(\frac{1}{2}\) inch howitzer imply the same thing. This double method of nomenclature holds also for mortars, the 50-pound mortar, for instance, holding a 50-pound stone ball, which has a diameter of 12 inches, so that a 50-pound or 12-inch mortar throws a bomb of about 100 pounds’ weight of iron.

The external parts of the howitzer resemble those of the cannon and receive the same names, but the bore has a different form. This is shown most plainly by the dotted line in pl. 36, fig. 24. As the charge is very small in comparison with the size of the shot, it has been compressed into a small space and a chamber made for it in the breech, terminating in a hemisphere. The forward part of the bore, the chase, receives the shell in loading, unites with the chamber by a segment of a sphere, and is called the seat of the shell (kettle). From thence to the mouth the bore is cylindrical, and is called the “vacant cylinder.” The chamber is cylindrical, the seat sometimes conical. On the second reinforce are the dolphins and trunnions. The length of the howitzer is determined by the length of the human arm, as the charge and shell are placed in the chamber and seat by hand, and the fuse must be adjusted in the same manner there. Accordingly the 7-pound howitzer is, in general, about six calibres, the 10-pounder about five and a half calibres in length. As to the weight of the howitzer, the proportion usually given is 50 pounds of metal for each pound of iron in the shell, whence the 7-pound howitzer will weigh 50 times 15, or 750 pounds. Pl. 36 shows various forms of howitzer. Fig. 19 is a Bavarian, fig. 20, an Austrian, fig. 21, a Prussian 7-pound howitzer; fig. 22, a French 6-inch, fig. 23, an English 5\(\frac{1}{2}\)-inch, and fig. 24, an English 8-inch howitzer. Fig. 37 is the section of a shell or howitz; fig. 36, a Paixhans howitz; and fig. 35, a fire-ball. These last are strong spherical frames with iron ribs, which are filled with combustible matter and wrapped in tow cloth; they serve to set buildings, &c., on fire when thrown among them. In order to light up the country at night, balls of this kind are thrown filled with clear, white-burning light-composition.

A particular species of howitzer is the unicorn (fig. 15), used by the Russians, and of various calibres, but mostly 10- and 20-pounders. They have only one dolphin, whence their name. They are, however, from ten to eleven calibres in length, whence they shoot with more accuracy than the others, and have no cylindrical chamber, but run conical from the beginning of the seat. The vent runs in obliquely, and the base mouldings are cut off on the under side. Another kind of howitzer was invented by the Russian General Count Schuvaloff in 1746, and called from him Schuvaloffs, of which fig. 16 is the side view and fig. 17 the horizontal section. The bore, instead of a cylinder, was an oval with the long axis horizontal, and was designed for giving a greater lateral spread to grape shot than usual. They were kept a secret, and were, therefore, not oval at the muzzle, but rounded, so as to appear externally like any other howitzer. They did not, however, produce the expected effects, and were soon abandoned. Other powers had long howitzers also, the so called shell-pieces, as, for example, the Saxons, and these with the Russian unicorns suggested to the French Colonel of Marine Artillery, Paixhans, the idea of his bomb-cannon. This is a kind of very long howitzer (fig. 18) with conical chamber, which exists in various calibres (our plate shows an 8-inch). From these solid shot as well as shells can be fired. Their fire is more certain than that of the common howitzer, and their effect very great. They were first employed at the siege of Antwerp, where also Paixhans’ great mortar, constructed upon similar principles, was used.

c. Mortars. Mortars are in all respects very similar to howitzers, save that their trunnions, since they are only designed to discharge shot at a very great elevation, are not in the middle, but quite at the hinder end; there are some, indeed, which have, instead of trunnions, only a cast foot, and which can, therefore, be fired only at one angle. Internally the mortar is divided like the howitzer, but the chambers have many different forms. The common chambers are the cylindrical (pl. 36, fig. 25) and the conical (fig. 29), but there are some pear-shaped, the narrowest part in front, and some spherical. The two last, however, being ineffective, are at present very rare. Externally the mortar is divided (fig. 30) into the breech I, with the trunnions G H, the reinforce G H E F, the second reinforce E F C D, and the muzzle A B C D. On the second reinforce stand the handles or dolphins. Mortars are shorter than howitzers, usually not more than three calibres long, in order that the bomb may be introduced conveniently. The mortar of Paixhans, however, was very much longer, to give a greater range. In the weight of mortars the proportion is usually 15 to 20 pounds of metal in the piece to each pound in bomb, so that a 30-pound mortar weighs 60 times 15, or 60 times 20, i. e. 900 or 1200 pounds. Fig. 25 shows a Prussian 50-pound mortar; fig. 26, an Austrian 30-pounder; fig. 27, the same after Vega’s construction, with conical chamber and the trunnions a little advanced; fig. 28, the French 10-inch mortar; fig. 29, the Gomer mortar with flat conical chamber and trunnions E C on the second reinforce; fig. 30, an English mortar.

V. Plate 37: Illustrating Artillery Carriages
Engraver: Gustav Feldweg

d. Cannon and Howitzer Carriages. The frame upon which the piece is placed for use and for transportation is called its carriage; the gun is attached to it by means of the trunnions, and it is fitted also with all the implements requisite for the service of the piece. For cannon and howitzers the carriages have throughout the same form, and consist, in most armies, of two cheeks, A A (pl. 37, figs. 1, 4), which are formed partly in straight and partly in curved lines, and broad at the foremost end, the “breast,” and growing narrower as they run back terminate in a curve, the “trail,” so that they may glide more easily over the ground in the recoil. Besides the axle-tree, these cheeks are held together by several transoms, of which the foremost is called the breast-transom; then comes the centre-transom, and last the trail-transom, in which is the “pintle-hole” (fig. 6, the dotted line at b), and the rings, a a, for the insertion of handspikes, to move and guide the trail. Previously there had been a fourth transom, behind the axle, the travelling-transom, upon which the breech was let down when the piece was being transported. The cheeks are plated all round with iron bands, to secure them from splitting and give them more solidity, and through the transoms run screw-bolts, to keep the cheeks together. For the trunnions there are iron trunnion-plates, which are closed with iron trunnion caps, fastened with key-bolts. Between the cheeks is the directing or elevation apparatus, of which we shall speak below. The English at present, and also the French, have the stock-trail, or block-carriage. In this the carriage proper (pl. 37, fig. 18) is a beam. A, to which in front two short cheek pieces, B, are secured for receiving the trunnions. As the trail-transom is here wanting, and the trail itself is very narrow, a strong iron ring is secured to it (fig. 1, B) through which the pintle-bolt passes when limbered up.

Fig. 1 shows the side-view, fig. 4 the upper-view, of a Bavarian fieldpiece. A is the cheeks; B is the trail-transom, which has here no pintle-hole, but a pintle-ring; C, the two handspikes for direction, which are attached with a hinge, and when not in use turned back between the cheeks, or else laid in two rings for the purpose on the transom (fig. 4). The rammer, a, with the sponge, c, on a staff, b (fig. 31); the worm, c, with spindle, a, and screw, b, for drawing the charge (fig. 32); and the “tire-sabot,” a, with the toothed ladle, b, for adjusting the ball in the bore (fig. 33), are all, when not in use, attached to the carriage by iron fittings for that purpose. E, fig. 1, is the elevating-screw; F, a ring for hooking on the water or tar bucket, and the bricoles. Fig. 6 is a Bavarian seven-pound howitzer, with cheeks partly removed, A; B is the store bed, C the elevating screw, D the centre-transom with the female screw, E hooks for implements and for the bricoles; a a rings for the handspikes (figs. 29, 30 a, with b, hooks for hanging them on the cheeks), the dotted lines near b mark out the pintle-hole, and at one end of the same plate is a hook for the bricoles in moving backwards; c, hooks for sponge, handspikes, &c.; d, draw-bolts, f f, keys for the cap-squares. Fig. 10 is a French twelve-pounder, with block-carriage, newest pattern. A, trail block; B, attached cheeks; C, implements of service; D, water bucket; E, locking plate; F, coiled prolonge; G, elevating screw. Fig. 18, French twenty-four pounder, heavy field gun, on block-carriage: A, trail block; B, cheeks; C, elevating-screw; D, lifting-bar, for limbering up; E, drag-chain.

V. Plate 38: Illustrating Artillery and Pontoon Carriages
Engraver: Gustav Feldweg

Between the cheeks, or on the axle-tree of the field-carriage, is placed a small chest for implements and a few rounds of fixed ammunition, ball and grape. Garrison carriages are not designed to be moved any great distance; they can be, therefore, and for heavy calibres of garrison guns must be, very much stronger and heavier. For the same reason they require either no wheels at all or very small ones. The simplest garrison carriage is the rampart-carriage of Gribeauval (pl. 38, fig. 1). It consists of two strong cheeks connected by the bolts q, d, k, and can be moved backwards and forwards on the platform, on the block-wheels r s, by handspikes in the rings and hooks, h, l. These carriages are so low that the piece on its trunnions only just clears the sole of the embrasure. To fire “en bachette,” however (that is over the crest of the rampart, without embrasures, so that the piece ranges freely in all directions over the superior slope), a higher carriage is used, the travelling garrison-carriage of Gribeauval (pl. 37, fig. 11, is the side-view, fig. 12, the rear view, and fig. 13 is the carriage placed upon the platform-wagon for transportation). A is the cheeks, made up of the three blocks ah c, scarped together and connected by bolts and transoms; B, the elevating screw; C, a support in which the block-wheel, D, runs upon a separate beam, H, of the chassis I, its track sloping upwards as it gives back, to diminish the recoil; E is a bar for moving the piece backwards and forwards; K, the fore wheels, with thick tires, G, and the axle Q. For transportation, a long beam, L, with a pintle-hole, is inserted into the carriage and put over the pintle-bolt, M, of the limber, O, of the platform-wagon, so that the wheels, P, make the fore wheels of the carriage. The chassis upon which the carriage runs behind the embrasure consists of two side-sills, two head-sills, and a middle-sill, H, for the truck-wheel, D; it is moved from one side to the other on the platform, as the direction requires. Of similar construction is the French iron coast-carriage (fig. 16). For this there lies, behind the breastwork, a small platform, A B, upon which in rear is the curved piece C, for the truck-wheel, G, to traverse on, and in front a broad sill, D, for the fore wheel, M. The traversing platform (chassis), E, revolves around a bolt in the front part of the platform, A. This traversing platform has a groove on each side in front, in which the cheeks of the carriage proper can slide back for the recoil; it is itself made to traverse by means of the beam, F. The carriage consists of the uprights, H, which are united to the bed, K, by means of the brace, I, and which support the trunnion beds. L is the elevating-screw. Another garrison-carriage for use in casemates is the invention of Montalembert (fig. 14, side, fig. 15, upper view). The chassis, A, is higher behind to check the recoil, and traverses upon a circular platform by means of the truck-wheel, B, and upon the sleeper, E, by means of the lever, I; the low cheeks, D, run by means of the truck-wheels, C, and a small wheel lying under the beam, G, backwards and forwards upon the chassis, A; H is a transom near the wedge of the elevating-screw. The truck-wheel, C, is shown pl. 37, fig. 21, and it is seen in what manner it is made up of six wedges, a, held together by the tire, b; at c is a racket-wheel, which is caught by a panel on the carriage, so that, after recoiling, the piece is kept stationary until it can be loaded. For the service of the piece the rampart sponge and the rammer, with a handle bent backwards (fig. 34d), and connected with the staff by the mounting, c, are employed. For fortifications where it is necessary to fire downwards, as in Gibraltar for instance, the depression carriage of Kohler is employed (pl. 38, fig. 2, side view, fig. 3, from above). Upon the platform, f f, which can be moved sideways by means of rollers, h, runs, on four wheels, g g, the carriage proper, whose lower frame is bevelled off in front, and has two arches, i, in rear, by means of which the upper frame, ee, which is also bevelled off in front at d, can be set at any angle. Upon the upper frame lie the cheeks, a b l, on which the piece, c, rests upon its trunnions, and which are bound together by two cross-pieces and bolts into a frame; the whole is of iron.

A peculiar carriage was invented by Count von Bückeburg already mentioned, for the one-pound amusette, which can be fired from without unlimbering (fig. 4, side view, fig. 5, view from above). Upon the high edges rest the two beams, a b, bound together into a frame, between which are the bench, c, and stand, d, for the artillerists, and upon which the platform, e f, lies. Upon this are the low cheeks, g h, with the transoms, i and n; on these cheeks the trunnions rest. Upon the front carriage, o, which is a limber with a pintle for the pintle-ring on the lower frame, stands an ammunition chest, n.

e. Mortar Carriage or Bed. For mortars which have their trunnions on the second reinforce, the so called hanging mortars, the carriage consists of two cheeks connected together by bolts and transoms. After the inefficiency of this construction was perceived in various armies, and instead of the hanging, the standing mortar was introduced, the carriage consisted only of a short massive block of oak wood, or of two or three very thick oak planks, screwed together by means of strong iron bolts passing through them and secured by surrounding bands. Upon this bed is hollowed out the place for trunnion beds and for the foot of the mortar. Pl. 37, fig. 8, is a Prussian 50-pound mortar upon its bed. A, which is composed of two very thick planks and three very short transoms. Besides the two bolts, aa, the four bolts which pass through the iron band serve to hold the bed together. The lower corners of the bed are notched in and rounded, to permit of handspikes being thrust under for moving it upon the platform, and there are also hooks, bb, to be made use of in curving the bed sideways, or to secure it in transportation; B, are the trunnion plates and cap squares, which are fastened round the trunnions by key bolts; c and d are quoins for elevating the mortar. Fig. 17 is a French mortar on its bed, which consists of two thick cheeks of cast iron. A, set upon the wooden sleepers, B, and firmly united by means of transoms and bolts; the pins, aa, of which there are four, are employed in giving the direction and securing the mortar; B are the cap squares, and C is the quoin. Fig. 7 is the side view of an Austrian 30-pound mortar, after Vega’s construction: A is a bed composed of three oak blocks united by screw bolts, and having iron studs at the angles for giving the direction and moving the piece. Upon this bed, two low iron cheeks, B, are fastened by means of bolts, and form the trunnion beds, which are closed by the cap squares, F. On the trunnion, D, of the mortar, an index is fixed, which shows, upon a circular scale attached to the bed, the angle of elevation; a, is the pivot bolt for the stool bed, b; and c, the directing screw, the head of which fits into the stool bed, b, while the female screw in which it plays lies in a movable transom between the low cheeks. Fig. 22 is a side view of the stool bed: a, is the socket for the spherical head of the directing screw; b, the cushion for the mortars; and c, the hole for the pivot bolt.

A peculiar kind of mortar bed is that for the sea mortar (pl. 38, fig. 6, side view; fig. 7, upper view; fig. 8, cross section on the half scale). These beds are composed of two layers of oak beams, ff and ee, each pair breaking joints and bound together with the belts, gh and i. The studs, ff (fig. 7), serve for giving the side direction. Upon this bed lies the iron sole plate, which, by means of screw bolts through the disk, x, and by the screws of the rings, ekno (which are for securing the mortar by ropes), is fastened to the bed proper. In this sole plate the trunnion beds are sunk, and the cap squares, m, secured upon them by key bolts. The sole plate and bed are hollowed out at t, for the mortar and quoin. The whole bed stands, by means of a groove, upon the circular iron platform, ab, and is so connected with this by the pivot bolts, d (figs. 7 and 9), that both can revolve around it for the side direction. The pivot bolt is secured into one of the beams of the ship.

f. The Elevating Screw. With cannon and howitzers, the muzzle must be movable through a curve of ten or fifteen degrees, in order to give the necessary elevation or depression for the aim; for mortars, the elevation amounts even to sixty degrees. To effect these movements with the requisite accuracy and rapidity the elevating screw is employed. The most simple means of accomplishing the purpose is by the quoin or wedge, which was formerly used for cannon and howitzers by moving it in or out under the base-ring. At present this is used only for mortars (pl. 37, fig. 8), and for them three are employed. Under 15° elevation, the mortar lies upon the bed; the first quoin gives 25°, the second, 30°, and thus with the third 45° or 60° can be given. The screw quoin is better, indeed, as it admits of more accuracy in the elevation; but this, on account of its slowness, is used only for garrison pieces. Fig. 25 shows the section of such a quoin: a, is the wedge upon which the base-ring rests; b, is the stool bed lying between the bed cheeks, upon a groove in which the wedge moves by means of the screw, d, which works in the female screw, c, firmly fixed in the stool bed. The quoin of the Montalembert carriage is similar to this, save that the screw in it is fixed and the female screw set in the wedge, which is thus moved to and fro by turning the screw (fig. 26, side view of this quoin; fig. 27, longitudinal section; fig. 28, front view). A, is the quoin; B, the screw, which is turned by the winch, C; to the quoin the plate, D, is fastened, which holds the thread of the female screw, and is opened when the screw is to be taken out. Another kind of elevating apparatus is that with a windlass (fig. 20), which was used for the Saxon park cannon. The stool bed, B, which moves between the carriage cheeks, AA, has two wings, aa, in front, by which it is attached to the trunnions, and behind, running downwards, two studs, to which the chains, DD, are made fast, which, by turning the winch, E, are wound upon the roller, C, just in front of the middle transom, F, and thus the stool bed with the breech of the piece resting upon it, is either raised or lowered. Instead of the studs, curved racks have been used, and pinions placed on the axle, C, thus avoiding the use of the chains. On the windlass there is always a racket wheel and parol to hold the direction.

The best and simplest elevating apparatus is the elevating screw (pl. 37, fig. 23). The stool bed revolves upon bolts in the carriage at g, and has beneath an iron groove plate, e, under which the screw head, d, catches. This screw is turned by the wrench, bb, and works in the female screw, a, which is placed in an iron transom for that purpose, revolving on sockets in the carriage cheeks (fig. 24). Fig. 6 shows clearly the whole arrangement. A variety of this apparatus is where the female screw has arms and lies loose upon the pierced transom; in this case the nut is turned, while in the other it is the screw. The elevating screw of the Bavarian 3-pounder (figs. 1 and 5) is similarly constructed, but has no stool bed (as indeed is the case at present with the French artillery); the head of the screw passes through the knob of the cascable, and is turned by the winch, a; the female screw is at b, and movable upon the carriage cheeks.

g. The Limber. To move a piece of artillery from one place to another, two more wheels must be added to the two upon which it stands. This is done by means of the limber or front carriage. There are limbers without, and limbers with boxes. The first consists only of an axle, upon which lies a bolster, bearing a pintle bolt (fig. 13 mno), over which the trail of the piece is hung. In front is the pole with its parts. Limbers with boxes serve for the transportation at the same time of the most necessary munitions and of some of the gunners. In general, the limber forms a common fore carriage, with all its parts, on which stands in rear a bolster with the pintle bolt, and in front, upon the axle, the limber box. In the position of the pintle bolt there are some variations. In the Prussian artillery and several others, the pintle is a straight conical bolt, and the pintle hole larger above than below. In pieces on the plan of the Bavarian Col Zoller (pl. 38, centre figure), the pintle is the same, but the sweep bar of the limber falls away, and the pintle hole is peculiarly constructed, so as to give the greatest freedom of motion in the junction of the limber and carriage for overcoming difficulties of ground. For pieces with the block carriage, instead of the pintle hole a hook is requisite (pl. 37, fig. 19a), in which the ring of the trail is hung. With respect to the limber box, there are also great differences, as we shall see in the descriptions of single limbers. Fig. 2 shows the limber of a Bavarian 3-pounder from the side, and fig. 3, from the rear: E, is the perch with the sweep bar, bb, and the shaft, between the arms of which lies the pole; A is the axle-tree body, with the two wooden arms, BB, which at aa are cased with iron, and on which run the wheels, G; e is the pintle, over which the ring, B, of the carriage is hung (fig. 1). Upon the axle and the shaft stands the limber box, F, which at D is cushioned, and forms a seat for two artillerists, for whom a back and arms, d d, are attached to the supports, cc. The cushioned seat is at the same time the cover of the limber box, in which the most necessary munitions are carried; at C stands another box for implements. The English limber (fig. 19) has no sweep bar, and the pintle hook, a, is on the axle-tree bed. The axle, DD, is of iron, and the wheels, CC, are as high as those of the carriage (5 feet). Instead of one large limber box there are here two smaller ones, A A, which are not screwed down upon the bed, but only lashed to it firmly, whereby great facility is given for the renewal of munitions. Pl. 36, fig. 31, shows an English 6-pounder field-piece, limbered up and completely equipped. The gun boxes stand here upon the axle-tree of the piece. The French limber (pl. 38, fig. 10) has likewise for block carriages no sweep bar, but only a pintle hook, otherwise a limber bolster and pintle bolt. The limber box occupies the whole breadth between the wheels, and has high handles at each end, which serve also for the artillerists to hold on by.

h. Wagons. For the transportation of mortars and 24-pound guns, as these cannot be transported upon their carriages, the gun-wagon (chariot à port corps) is employed. For cannon these have only three sleepers on the frame, under the muzzle, trunnions, and breech, the middle one having trunnion beds closed with cap squares; the piece is lashed besides. Small mortars remain on their beds, and two of them are transported on the wagon; the large mortar requires a wagon to itself Pl. 37, fig. 9, is a gun-wagon for a Saxon 30-pound mortar. Upon the common, stout wagon, A, with four wheels, C, lies the frame, B, upon which, over the hind-axle-tree, the mortar bed, D, is fast lashed. For the mortar, E, wooden trunnion beds are fitted, which are closed with cap squares; the mortar itself is also strongly lashed.

Ammunition wagons (caissons) serve for the transportation of a certain quantity of munitions, and each piece has one, each howitzer two of these, belonging to it. For most artillery this species of wagon is constructed as shown in pl. 38, where fig. 11 is the side view, fig. 12 the upper view, and fig. 13, the rear view of a French 4-pounder caisson. The fore wagon, B, consists of the guides, m m, with the sweep-bar, n, the pole, r, and the axle, l, bearing the bolster, b, for the frame, a d, which rests on the hind axle, y, by means of the bolster, L, and the axle-tree bed, e. Fore and hind wagon are connected by the perch. From the frame hangs the drag-chain, c c. Upon the shaft rests the splinter-bar with the swingle-trees, p. The wheels, g h and D, run upon iron arms. On the frame-tie, d, and in a loop, z, under the bolster, rests the axle arm, x, on which a spare wheel is carried. Upon the frame is secured, by bolts, q, the ammunition chest. A, the cover of which is lined with iron plates. Entrenching tools and other materiel are transported in wagons of the same kind. Entirely similar to these caissons is the battery wagon. The new French caissons (pl. 38, fig. 14, side view, fig. 15, rear view, fig. 16, upper view of the fore wagon) are designed for the transportation of men also. The fore wagon is in all respects like a limber, and is connected with the hind wagon by means of a perch without a sweep-bar and shaft, upon which stand two chests in all respects similar to the limber boxes, so that no transference of ammunition from caissons to limber box is necessary, but the full box is exchanged for the emptied one on the limber. A spare wheel is carried on the hind axle, as in the other caisson. The battery and store wagons (fig. 17) are chests with flat covers, resting on a frame which stands on the bed of the hind axle, and has a body bolt by which it is attached to the fore wagon.

The wagon for the transportation of bridge equipage (fig. 20, side view, fig. 21, upper view) consists of a fore wagon with chandelier and under-running wheels, and a hind wagon, Z. The frame, a a, is connected by the trunnions, b b, and bears the four sleepers, c c c c, upon which the pontoon is lashed by means of the rope, d e, after it is run up from behind over the roller, W. The winches by which the roller, W, is turned are at p; the draw-ropes winding on it at the same time, while the back part of the wagon is supported by the prop, S, dropped into the position, k. On the frame is also the drag chain and shoe, e. The fore wagon has, over the axle-tree bed, the riding bolster, P, which, by means of the guides, g g, upon which lies the sweep-bar, t t, and the ties, h h, is connected with the pole, Y.

The travelling forge serves to make small repairs and to do horse-shoeing at the time and place required. The Prussian travelling forge (fig. 18) has the under carriage of the caisson. Upon the forward axle stands the coal and tool box, upon the hinder the hearth with the back and nozzle, in front of which is the bellows. The anvil is placed on the ground. The French travelling forge (pl. 38, fig. 19) has, on the frame of the battery or park wagon, the coal box over the forward axle-tree, over the hind the bellows, and in rear of all a tool box. The anvil stands on the hearth for transportation, and is taken down for work.

For moving artillery short distances close to the surface of the earth the devil carriage is used. The simplest (fig. 22) is an axle-tree bed, a, with the guides, l m, between which one simple pole, with rings for fastening draw-ropes, is secured. In use, the devil carriage is brought over the gun, the pole raised, and the trunnions of the piece made fast to the bolster, then the pole is brought down to the ground and the cascable made fast to it. If now the pole is raised to the draught height, the piece will clear the ground about 6 inches, and can easily be transported. The compound devil carriage (fig. 23) has a screw, on which works a cross yoke with hooks, to which, when depressed as much as possible, the load is fastened, and then by turning the screw raised with little effort.

Fabrication of Artillery and Projectiles, Balls and Bombs

Since the earliest and rudest construction of artillery, at the period of its first introduction, was given up, it has been produced only by casting, for the attempts in modern times to forge guns have thus far led to no practical results. At first the piece was cast hollow, over the core, or rod covered with clay to the size of the bore, placed in the centre of the finished mould and taken out after the casting. It was soon perceived, however, that the interior surface of the bore thus obtained was always of a somewhat spongy-texture, never exactly straight and cylindrical; and finally that the piece itself was injured by the iron anchor of the core rod, which remained imbedded in the breech. Meanwhile the methods of working in metal had improved, particularly the art of boring; the plan of hollow casting for guns was, therefore, entirely laid aside, all guns were cast solid and afterwards bored out to the proper calibre, whereby not only was the best metal brought into the region of the bore, but a piece was obtained which shot more truly and lasted longer. In the moulding itself two methods were followed: the loam moulding and the dry sand moulding, the last of which is more and more used. The metal of which guns are cast is either bronze, a mixture of 10 parts copper and 1 part tin, or refined and repeatedly melted iron.

V. Plate 39: Illustrating the Fabrication of Artillery and Projectiles, Balls and Bombs
Engraver: Henry Winkles

a. Loam Moulding. This is so called because a mixture of loam and horse-dung is used to form the mould. For each mould the pattern must first be produced. This is done by laying a core staff on two trestles and winding it round with tow and old rope, keeping it all the while revolving, until the overlaying has nearly the shape and dimensions of the gun, which is judged of by a pattern board, laid before the workman, in which the profile of the gun is cut out. Then a layer of mould stuff is put on and dried, and so a succession of layers, which, however, are made finer and finer, until at last they consist purely of washed clay and water, wherewith a mould board, plated with iron, is used, in order to get the mouldings and other parts exact and true by turning them off against them. Each layer must be perfectly dry, wherefore a moderate coal fire is kept constantly going under the cylinder. The last layer is coated with a paste of loam, and over this a coat of wax dissolved in oil of turpentine is laid, and the pattern turned. Then the trunnions and dolphins, mounted in wax, are put on and the pattern is complete. Upon this the mould proper is made, the first layer of washed loam and clay and coarser stuff being employed by degrees. Pl. 39, fig. 26, shows the art and manner of forming the pattern mould for a 50-pound mortar which corresponds with the above described, with the distinction only, that they are formed standing, and that instead of the woolded core the rough mould is built up. That is, a circular hearth, q, is built, in the centre of which is the bed, e, for the mould spindle, and then the rough form of the pattern is begun with a round layer of bricks, u, in which air-holes are left; on this a cupola-shaped structure, p, having nearly the form of the mortar when standing on its muzzle, is erected of tiles cemented with loam. On the top is a tube, p, for the core spindle. The whole stands near a wall, to which the turning apparatus is attached. This consists of horizontal arms, c, which are fastened to the wall by means of ties, f′, and run together in the middle, b. An oblique tie, d, also fastened to the wall at f, runs likewise to the point of junction, which thus forms the vertex of an immovable triangle. From this point to the bed, e, in the hearth runs the spindle, a, whose upper end (fig. 27) lies in the collar, b, and is regulated by the fly-screw, g. About this spindle the mould board, k k, is turned, being suspended from the frame, h, which is attached to the collars, m m, and held in its place by the oblique tie, l. The frame, h, has numerous holes, i i, by which the mould board can be placed as desired, and the oblique tie has slits, s s, corresponding to the slit, k′, in the mould board, so that it may be set by means of the screw, t. The height at which the frame, h, is placed is regulated by a collar at o. The screws, n, serve to fix it. The pattern being completed upon this turning machine, trunnions and dolphins are put on, and the mould itself is made. During the process a gentle coal fire is kept constantly burning inside the cupola. Pl. 39, fig. 28, shows the completed mould, the different layers being taken off in parts to exhibit the structure. Beneath the mould proper, z, we see an addition; this is the dead-head, and gives afterwards in the casting an over-plus of metal, by means of which that contained in the mould is rendered more compact; in the boring process it is cut off. At the top we see another addition; this is designed to hold the mortar, l y, in the turning machine, and is likewise cut off. As to the layers in the mould, there comes first a coat of fine loam paste, p, then three coarser layers of mould loam, y, then an armature of iron bands perpendicular and horizontal, w, and finally the outermost layer of coarse mould loam, v. When the mould is finished and dry the pattern is broken to pieces within it and taken out by fragments, the trunnions and dolphins melted out, and the mould is then ready for casting.

b. Dry Sand Moulding. With very different celerity and exactness goes on the modern process of dry sand moulding, first introduced by General Guillemin at Liège. In this a pattern of metal is employed, which is divided in such a manner that the different pieces which compose it can be easily taken out from the finished mould. Fig. 5 shows the section of a moulded 6-pounder gun, and it is perceived that the pattern consists: 1, of a solid, conical piece of wood, h, mounted with rings, ii, and furnished with a ring-bolt, k; 2, of a pattern for the muzzle m n, with the muzzle mouldings m and l, which can be taken off; 3, of a pattern, o, for the chase with its movable rings and the draw-hooks, xx; 4, of a pattern q for the second reinforce, with the trunnion patterns p p screwed on: 5, of a pattern for the breech, s t, with the base mouldings and the draw-hooks, z z; 6, of a pattern for the cascable, u, which can be united with the pattern 7, for the knob of the cascable and the turning-head v, by means of a screw-bolt, w. To each of these seven patterns belongs a mould-box also, although single pieces of the patterns project into other mould-boxes. These mould-boxes are seen in fig. 4, under the letters A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H; the mould-box D has besides the side boxes E E′ for the trunnions. The mould-boxes consist always of two exactly equal shells, which are of greater diameter than the pattern by the sand thickness of the mould, and are provided with longitudinal and cross flanges, to connect the shells with each other and the mould-boxes together into a whole, by means of the key-bolts, a db. Each mould-box has handles, f f, for lifting it by the crane. Internally the walls of the mould-boxes are provided, according to fig. 7, with depressions, in order that the mould-stuff, when rammed in, may hold faster. The moulding process is as follows: First, the box G is placed with the broad side upon a bed, which has marks for the right position of the pattern, u, and this is completely moulded, while the pattern v is united with it, and the layer of mould-stuff, composed of one part powdered coke and five parts of pit sand containing clay moistened with water, in which horse-dung, coke, sand, and pipe-clay are contained, is strongly rammed in all around, finally smoothed off accurately at the joints, and dusted over with a layer of powdered charcoal. Then the mould-box H is set on and the pattern v moulded, while the two ears which are represented in figs. 9, 10, and 11, are shoved upon the pattern of the turning-head, the sand-layer H′ formed, smoothed off, and closed with the plate c. Then the completed part of the mould is set on the plate c, and, one after the other, the boxes F, D, C, B, and A are moulded, whereby the layers F′, D′, C′, E′, B′, and A′ are obtained. The moulding of the trunnions, p p, is done from the side, and the mould is closed by the plates e e. Fig. 22 shows the cross-section of the mould on the line A B, fig. 5, and here are seen the screws by which the trunnion patterns are fastened to the main patterns. The withdrawal of the patterns is done from above downwards. First, the box A is loosened and taken off, which from the coating of coal-dust on the joints can be done easily. The pattern, h, of the dead-head, is taken out from above, the pattern b from below, and the inner face of the mould is then examined and touched up where necessary. For this purpose the spatulas, figs. 20 and 21, the little trowels, figs. 12 and 13, the small disks, figs. 14, 15, and 16, and the larger oval disks, figs. 17, 18, and 19, are employed. The boxes B and C are easily freed from their patterns, but D contains the trunnion patterns. These are loosened from the main pattern by taking out the connecting screws, when the main pattern can easily be withdrawn, and afterwards the trunnion patterns are drawn into the inside of the mould and so removed. The boxes F and G, again, are easily freed, and at H remain, where the pattern v is removed, the two ears fast in the mould. These have, however (fig. 9), a small screw-thread in them, and by screwing a small spindle (fig. 8) into this, they can easily be pulled into the inside of the mould and so removed. If now the separate mould-boxes are well powdered and properly placed together again, the mould is ready for the casting. Fig. 24 shows the section of the mould of a 50-pound mortar with the patterns in; fig. 25, a cross section through the centre of the trunnions, to show how the trunnion patterns are taken out; fig. 23, a view of the complete mould. A, B, C, D, E, F, are the mould-boxes; A′, B′, C′, D′, GG, the patterns; E′ and F′, the layers of mould-stuff in the trunnion moulds; a, b, c, d, e, are key-bolts and wedges for fastening the mould-boxes together; g, the plate with bolts on the trunnion mould; f, the handles on the mould-boxes; h, the draw-hooks on the patterns for taking them from the mould; i i, the movable ring put on to form the muzzle moulding, which is taken off separately in drawing the patterns; k k, are the screws which hold the dolphin patterns and which are unscrewed in order to take them out; l l, are screws which hold the trunnion patterns during the moulding of the main pattern; n is the screw for the turning-head, to take it out more conveniently. After what has been already said of the moulding process and the manner of withdrawing the patterns from the mould, nothing more is required on these subjects here, save a few words of explanation with respect to the manner of withdrawing the trunnion patterns. In moulding the trunnions, cylinders are at the same time imbedded in the sand layers E and F, at the centre of the trunnion pattern forming the hollows u u. The trunnion patterns have holes, m, with screw threads, one larger, one smaller. If now, after the screws l l are taken out, the chamber pattern is withdrawn, then a plate, t, with a hole in it, is brought in front of the trunnion pattern at E and a spindle o, of which there are two, fitting the large and small screw-thread; the one now referred to, being the smallest, is thrust through u and the trunnion pattern G, and screwed into the thread in the opposite pattern, F; the spindle, o, has a screw cut upon its opposite extremity also, on which works a wrench, r; by turning this wrench the spindle is drawn directly backwards, and thus the pattern F, into which its end is screwed, is drawn out from its mould. In exactly similar manner the other trunnion pattern is withdrawn, and then, in the retouching of the mould, the holes u u are filled up and the stopping-plates, p p, screwed on. The prepared mould is now carried to the pit of the foundry for casting, where it is either rammed in sand, or screwed fast upon a bed for that purpose and held by ties and braces.

c. The Foundry and the Casting. The casting of cannon is made from the flame or reverberatory furnace, as it is called, whenever gun-metal, a mixture of copper and tin, is employed; and from the cupola furnace when iron guns are to be cast. In the former cast the metal flows from the tap-hole in the hearth, upon which it was melted by the reverberated flame, into the mould, which is placed perpendicularly in the pit immediately in front of the furnace. In the second case, however, the melted iron is drawn from the furnace in great kettle-shaped ladles and poured into the mould; yet casting in iron could be practised from blast furnaces adapted for the purpose, or even from peculiarly constructed reverberatory furnaces. Iron guns are cast at iron-works, where all the necessary apparatus for moulding, boring, and turning are already on hand; for bronze guns, however, a particular casting-house is constructed in the place where the artillery workshops are located, provided with all the requisite apparatus and the machinery for boring and turning. Pl. 39, fig. 1, is the longitudinal section along the line XY in the ground-plan (fig. 2) of a casting-house or cannon foundry, and fig. 3 is the cross section of the same, through its principal spaces. A is the foundry proper and space for moulding the guns; B, the room for small mouldings, with a pot furnace for lesser castings. C is a large hearth sloping to the tap-hole; D, a smaller one, to be used when only one or two guns are to be cast; if both are used at once, from eight to ten guns can be cast at the same time. E is the pit; F, a drying oven for loam casting; G, the platform scales for weighing the metal and the guns when finished; H, the great crane, turning on a pivot, for moving heavy masses in the moulding process and for setting in the mould; I, the smithy; K, pattern room and dwelling of the director; L, furnace space; a, steps to the ash-pit; b b′ b″, pipe for leading the air blast to the furnaces; c, drain to carry off water from the pit; d, wells; e, drain from the moulding-room; f, drain pipe; g, pot furnace; h, chimney; i, fire-bridge; k, sole; l, ash-hole, m m′, stoke-holes; n, flue; o, conduit.

The gun after casting is taken from the mould, and then is usually bored and turned at the same time, if the boring machine, as is now generally the case, is horizontal. When the boring is vertical, the turning is done afterwards. Previous to boring and turning, however, a bolt of hammered copper is screwed in where the touch-hole is to be. When the piece is bored and turned, the trunnions are turned separately, the part between the trunnions and the dolphins worked off with files and rasps, and finally the vent bored out. Before it is used the piece is subjected to the most careful proof.

d. Casting Projectiles. Solid shot, case shot, and shells, are cast at iron works from white forge-iron. Formerly iron moulds were used for these, also; but they had the effect of making the balls too hard on the surface, whereby the bore of the gun was injured. At present, therefore, projectiles are cast in sand, in mould-boxes.

The casting of solid balls is the most simple. The patterns for this purpose are of brass very exactly turned, made in two halves, and fitting into each other by a groove. One half has a pin screwed into it, which forms the hole by which the metal is poured in at the casting. Pl. 39, fig. 31, shows the manner of moulding. The mould (flask) consists of the mould boxes (fig. 29 shows two such boxes, standing one upon the other), which are secured together by key-bolts. In moulding, the grooved half of the pattern, a, in this case a 24-pound ball, is set upon the mould-board s s, and the tap-hole pin, c, screwed in; then the mould-box is placed with its key-bolts in the holes made for them, and the half ball moulded by the sand layer B; the mould is then turned over, the mould-board taken off, the second half-ball set on, the second mould-box placed, and the mould made in the same way; then the mould is turned, the pin screwed out, the mould-box opened, and both patterns taken out, when it is again closed, and is then ready for casting. Smaller balls, as 6-pound and case-shot, are moulded four or more in one box. Fig. 30 shows one part of a mould-box for four 6-pound balls, and fig. 29 the two boxes, one on the other. A is the upper box, B the lower box; a a are the patterns; h, the jet hole, lying in the centre; d d, the jet channels, which are cut in when the mould is finished; c c are small pipes, air-vents, to let the air pass out when the mould is filled; e e, the key-bolts. The mould of the hollow shot is more complicated, because the internal cavity of these must be formed by a core, which remains in the mould during the casting and is removed afterwards; and because, also, for the larger, a pair of ears must be cast in, for the shell-hooks to catch hold of in transportation. Fig. 32 shows the two mould-boxes for a shell or bomb, with the patterns belonging to them as placed for moulding. A is the lower mould-box; q, a plug, by means of which the fuse-hole is formed, and which is replaced afterwards by the core-spindle; a is the pattern, upon which are a pair of ears, to form the sockets for those of the shell; B is the upper mould-box; a, the pattern, with the jet-hole b, and the air-vent c, for the escape of the gas which is generated. For hollow shot it is preferable to have the metal run into the mould at the side, so that the core be not disturbed in its position by the metal falling perpendicularly upon it. Fig. 33 shows the upper view of the lower mould-box: a is the pattern; g, the thumb-screw nut of the screw which holds the pattern of the fuse-hole plug, and which is loosened in withdrawing the patterns; A is the sand bed of the mould; m, hooks for lifting the mould-box. The core is formed either of sand or loam. Pl. 39, fig. 34, shows the perpendicular section of both mould-boxes, with the loam-core in place, for a shell or bomb; fig. 36 is the side view of the two mould-boxes; fig. 35, the upper view of the finished mould; fig. 37, under view of the same: A is the upper, B the lower mould-box; a is the cavity which is to be filled with metal; b, the jet hole; c are key-bolts, to hold the mould-boxes; e, air-vents; f, key-bolts, to hold the core-spindle, k, immovable in the bridge n; g, ears set in the mould, for the shell-hooks; the holes for the ears are made by small clay cylinders inserted in the mould. The ears are of wrought iron, and the ends reach into the internal cavity, where they are afterwards imbedded in the metal, k, core-spindle of wood or sheet iron and covered with a thin coat of loam, bored diagonally through lengthwise, to permit the gas to escape from the core. The core, i, consists of spun hay, which is wound firmly upon the spindle, and covered with several coats of loam, then turned at the core bench according to the pattern, and well dried; l, bolt to secure the perfectly accurate placing of the halves of the mould; m, hooks for handling. The sand-cores, which are better and now more used than the loam cores, are struck in a mould with three parts. Fig. 40 shows one of the two like parts a, which, united by the third, the cap p (fig. 41), are closed, and their internal cavity becomes exactly the size of the core; o is the handle for taking off the cap. Fig. 38 is a view, fig. 39 a section of a core-spindle: h, the shaft; f, the hole for the fixing-key; k, the holes bored for air-vents. To strike the sand-core, the stuff for which consists of a mixture of sand, loam, and powdered cinders or coke, the two parts a (fig. 40) are brought into a moulding-bench (fig. 42, upper view, fig. 43, longitudinal profile, fig. 44, half cross-section). Upon the mould box r the core-spindle k is made fast by the key f, the half-moulds, a, set on and pressed together by means of the cheeks C C and the screws D D, then a couple of wires, e, are laid in to form the air vents, and the core rammed solid with the mould-stuff; the cap p, set on by the handle o, and struck to make the foot of the core firm. When now the mould is opened the core can be taken out, dried, and set in the finished mould. For fire-bombs, which have three fire-holes, a (fig. 45, section, fig. 46, view of a fire-bomb), the sockets for the clay cylinders, which are to form the core of these holes, are formed at the same time with the mould. Fig. 47 shows the two mould-boxes, A and B, for fire-bombs, with the pattern placed in them; fig. 48, the upper view of the lower mould-box A; fig. 49, the vertical sections of both mould-boxes, with the core in its place; fig. 50, the lower mould-box, with the section of the core; a is the pattern, having beneath the spindle q, by which the fuse-hole is formed; in the middle is the projection, r, by which the bed for the hollow clay cylinder, s, is formed, running a piece into the mould sand, and reaching to the core; i is the core; c, the jet hole; e e, the key-bolts for locking the mould; and f, key-bolt for the core-spindle.

Military Pyrotechny

The manufacture of cartridges of all kinds, and of fireworks generally, especially of fire and light balls and rockets for military purposes, is the object of a particular art, that of Military Pyrotechny, the basis of which is, of course, the manufacture of gunpowder, since from this, in its various forms and with different additions, the above named articles are all produced.

V. Plate 40: Illustrating Military Pyrotechny
Engraver: Gustav Feldweg

a. Gunpowder. Gunpowder is a mixture of sulphur, saltpetre, and charcoal. The roll-sulphur is pulverized, and the saltpetre likewise. The charcoal, from soft but not gummy woods (linden, alder, poplar, &c.), is also powdered fine by a particular apparatus. The proportion of the ingredients is various; a medium (Prussian military powder) is 75 parts saltpetre, 12\(\frac{1}{2}\) sulphur, and 12\(\frac{1}{2}\) charcoal. The materials are first mixed dry. This is done in a mixing barrel, b b, divided by partitions, I (pl. 40, fig. 5, cross-section, fig. 6, longitudinal section), which is turned by the crank a, and set on the inside with laths, c; the trap d serves to fill and empty it. The material when well mixed is brought to the mill, which is either a rolling or stamping-mill. The latter is the most simple; fig. 1 gives a view, fig. 2 the section of one. In a block, D, the pots or pits G G G are hollowed out, in which the lower surface is made of hard heart wood, and which are narrower above than below, so that the stuff continually falls back upon itself. In each of these run two stamps, E E, shod with bronze, which are lifted alternately by cams, a, on the cylinder A, lying on the frame F, which cylinder is set in motion by some power applied to the cog-wheels B and C. The rolling-mill (fig. 3, side view, fig. 4, upper view) has a marble bed-stone, A, on which rests the bed, a, for the vertical shaft B, of which b is the upper bed, and which is turned by the bevel-wheels Q, on the shaft S, working into the bevel-wheel P. This vertical shaft carries the runner-axle D, which by an arrangement at d can be set higher or lower, and on this revolves the marble runner, E E, which by means of the wedge arrangement d d, and the plates t and x, is pressed against the end, m, of the axle, and runs round with it. The standing shaft carries at the same time the two frames F and G for lifting and dropping the three crutches, H, I, K, which serve to bring the material constantly from the centre and edge under the path of the runner. The lever arrangement, L, whose point of support is at c, raises or lowers the supports m for K, i for J, and p p and q for H. N is the border (curb) of the bed-stone; M, a trap for removing the finished material from the stone by means of the curved crutch, H. The well mingled mass is moistened with water, brought to one or the other of these mills, and then more intimately and perfectly mixed and worked together. Thus mixed it is taken to the plate-mill (fig. 7), where it is converted into cakes of one and a half to two lines in thickness. In the frame A lie the rollers B (turned by means of the cog-wheels D and I), E, and F, connected by an endless band. For the roller B there is an endless band, G, which is stretched by the roller C. The powder mass, still in its half-moist state, is shaken through the hopper H, and pressed between the rollers B and E into cakes, which fall by fragments into the receiver K. These powder cakes are then grained. The graining-sieve (fig. 9) consists of as many sieves, set one within the other, with exactly pierced parchment floors, as there are kinds of powder to be produced. Here, B, C, and D are the sieves. The mass is placed in D, loaded with a leaden disk, E, and by the motion of the sieve the powder is formed according to the size of the holes. The dust falls through the finest sieve into the chest A, and is then worked anew. The very sharp-grained powders are good for military purposes, but for hunting the powder is glazed in the glazing-casks. These casks (fig. 10 C) are set one behind the other on a shaft in the frame F, and made to revolve, at first slowly then more rapidly, by the driving wheels A and B; inside they have laths, against which the grains strike and thus smoothe each other. If the powder is to be polished at the same time, lead balls are mingled with the mass. A particular process for making powder with perfectly round grains is that of Champy (fig. 8). Here the mass is brought dry to the barrel A, whose shaft, a, turns in the frame g; by the pipe d a jet of water is thrown upon the mass, through a very finely pierced rose; the grains form themselves, and by motion become, avalanche-like, perfectly spherical. The cock c shuts off the water, and the trap e gives access to the barrel. The powder, when finished, is dried in heated drying-rooms, and then proved. For proving, the vertical eprouvette is very commonly used (pl. 40, fig. 11); the proof-charge is placed in the small mortar a, and upon it the foot of the notched staff b, which is loaded at the top, d, and passes through the cross-piece, f, of the frame, e e. If the charge is now fired the staff b is driven up and retained at the greatest height it reaches by pawls on the cross-piece, which catch in the notches; the strength of the powder is judged by the relative height to which the staff is driven, a normal powder being taken as the standard. Another proof is that with the eprouvette mortar (fig. 12), from which three discharges are made with the standard powder, three with the powder to be proved, and the strength determined by the average effect of these discharges. The proved powder is placed, in barrels containing one cwt. each, in the powder magazine. The field magazines (fig. 13, ground plan, fig. 14, longitudinal section along A′ B′, fig. 15, cross section along C′ D′) in batteries, &c., are partly sunk in the earth at F; a sloping passage, G, leads down to this, and a small ditch, H, serves to collect all the moisture, with a view to which the floor of the magazine slightly slopes towards it. The magazine is closed in, all around, with filled gabions, E E; on the top of which is a layer of fascines, D; then comes a row of air-holes, C; and a plank cover, above which is another row of fascines, and then a layer of earth, A. The door is always turned away from the enemy. The permanent magazines (fig. 16, ground plan, fig. 17, cross section, fig. 18, ground plan on a larger scale, fig. 19, longitudinal section on the same) are massive bomb-proof structures, G, surrounded with rampart and ditch. G is the building, F the space with the rampart, A the breastwork, E the banquette, B the exterior slope, C the ditch, D the glacis, and H′ a bridge over the ditch. The internal space of the magazine is divided into the magazine proper, G, and the ante-room, H. In the walls of the magazine are air-holes, and a, b, and c, show the different forms of these, a and b being so arranged that no fire can penetrate through them. I are wooden frames, on to which the powder-barrels are rolled over woollen covers, and where they are laid upon covers of the same. In peace, a roof-frame, L, rests upon the magazine; in war, this is filled with earth.

b. Musket and Cannon Cartridges. For service-firing, powder is made up into cartridges, either musket or cannon. These cartridges contain usually, along with the powder, the ball also; for chambered guns alone is the charge separate, and these are often loaded with the ladle or the measure.

Musket cartridges consist of a piece of paper (pl. 40, fig. 20), one side of which, that it may wind more closely, is cut obliquely; this leaf, a, is rolled about a former, b (fig. 21), the ball d set in, and the throat c choked with a tie of linen thread, and struck down upon the ball. Then the cartridge is filled and pinched together at the top (fig. 22). For cannon cartridges, bags are made of flannel or parchment; at present, flannel is used almost entirely. For marking out the form upon the piece of stuffy the pattern board a a′ (fig. 23) is used, and a second, which reaches only to the line b b′, for the seam: there are also half-pattern boards, when the stuff is laid double. Each calibre has its own pattern board. The length of the cartridge depends upon its being designed to hold the ball or not. When the bag is sewed with the back-stitch, turned, and felled, the sabot a (fig. 24), which has a groove, b, is set in, the ball c is placed in the sabot, and then the head g tied, after which the tie h is made in the groove g with a firework knot; e is the charge of powder. Often the ball, c (fig. 25), is fastened to the sabot, a, by two strips of tin, crossing each other at right angles; then the bag is made shorter, and fastened, at h, with a firework knot to the sabot groove. The first cartridges are best. Grape shot can be shaken in over a sabot in a longer bag, the bag tied to a head above and the ball space netted with twine; they are usually, however, put into tin boxes (fig. 27, section, fig. 28, view). Over the charge, a, comes a sabot, b, with the groove c, and on this sabot the case d (black for large balls, red for small) is nailed, which has first the iron culot e, then the ball f, and finally a bottom, g, over which the tin case is bent; at c the case is united to the bag by a firework knot.

c. Fire and Light Balls. Fire-balls are used to set buildings, &c., on fire, and light-balls to discover the movements and workmen of the enemy at night. Both are made in the same manner, only the filling is different. There belong to them an iron skeleton, the carcass (fig. 29), which is covered with a canvas bag, filled warm and formed, a fuse driven into the upper orifice, the sack tied fast to the same, and the slack turned back into the carcass (fig. 30). The fire-ball composition consists of thirty parts coarse powder, ten pitch, ten rosin, five colophon, two tallow, and one part tow. The light ball composition is of one part meal powder, ten parts saltpetre, four and a half sulphur, and one part antimony.

d. Signal Rockets. To communicate signals at great distances rockets are employed, which are made of various dimensions. The largest of these, having the calibre of a one-pound iron ball, mount to the height of 5,500 ft. The rocket composition consists of a mixture of meal powder and charcoal, which is rammed in such a manner into a case made up of paper rolled together and pasted, that a central cavity is left through the whole length. To make the rocket case, sheets of paper (a one-pound rocket requires about sixteen sheets of writing-paper) are rolled upon an exactly calibred wooden staff, the “former;” then, at a short distance from the end, broken in and choked (pl. 40, fig. 8, at h), so that there still remains an opening into the case, the fuse-hole, and then tied. To fill this case with composition a rocket-mould is used (fig. 31, section); this consists of a foot, a, with the neck a′, upon which is the knob and spindle d, by which the bore of the rocket is formed. The mould proper, b b, is fastened to the neck by means of the pin e. In this mould the case is placed, and driven by means of the former a (fig. 32, section) upon the spindle, so that the hollow b, of the former, cc, receives the spindle, whereupon a light blow is given with the mallet (fig. 37), forcing the case down upon the knob, and forming the vault (C, fig. 41). Then some composition is poured in, and rammed firm with the rammer a (fig. 33), the hollow of which, b, receives the spindle. As the case fills higher and higher, rammers are used with a shorter cavity (figs. 34 and 35) and lastly the solid rammer (fig. 36), with which a short part, the solid portion, is driven. When the rocket is so far completed, it is taken from the mould (fig. 38, a, rocket; h, choke; b, solid part), and at f a somewhat larger chamber, i, placed upon it, in which some grain powder (the bursting charge) and a light-ball, are put, and the whole then terminated by the pointed cap, g. Such a rocket is now fastened to the stick k (fig. 39), by the ties h and h′, that it may mount in a straight line. This stick is seven times the length of the case, with which it must, when balanced a few inches from the mouth, be in equilibrium; a is the rocket, i the pot, g the cap. In the vault is placed the priming for lighting the charge, and the rocket, with the mouth free, is then hung upon a nail. If the rocket is not to throw a fire-ball, but only to make a report, then a petard is placed in the pot. This is made strongly of tin plate, and filled with powder. If the light signal is to fall slowly, it is furnished with a parachute (fig. 40). In the pot is then placed a tin fight box, a, bored with holes, and provided with the four small wires, c c c c, to which the parachute is fastened, all this being placed in the pointed cap, and unfolded by the explosion.

e. Congreve Rockets. Great attention has been attracted, for a long time, to the rockets invented by the English Colonel Congreve, with which powerful effects were attained, although they have, perhaps, been somewhat exaggerated. For a length of time they were kept secret, but are now introduced into almost all artillery. The composition consists of saltpetre, sulphur, and meal powder, in various proportions, according to the size of the rocket. The largest have 20 parts saltpetre to 1 part sulphur and 1 meal powder. Many other substances, such as chlorate, &c., formerly added, are now laid aside, having been found to produce but insignificant effects and greatly to increase the danger of preparation. The most that is done is to moisten the composition with oil of turpentine. The case of the Congreve rocket is made of sheet iron, and in the pot incendiary composition is placed; the cap is made very strong, as the rocket is to serve as a projectile at the same time. Pl. 40, fig. 41, shows a Congreve rocket, and it will be perceived that externally it differs but little from the signal rocket; it is, however, much larger, from two to three inches in diameter. A, the rocket; B, composition; C, vault; D, incendiary composition with bursting-charge; E, cap; F F, choke-tie; G, stick. Fig. 42 is a Congreve rocket, as made at Vincennes, after Bem’s method. B B is the rocket proper, of sheet iron, with the composition; B E, the choke-tie for the stick, F; C is the pot, filled with incendiary composition and pierced with holes; D, a barbed head on the cap, to hold the rocket fast when it strikes. Fig. 43 is a rocket after Congreve’s last pattern. This is put upon the stick, C, by means of a wrought-iron shoe, B, which carries the priming-vault, A (fig. 45 shows this part in section, fig. 44, the lower view, where the six holes are seen, through which the blaze of the composition streams out). D is the rocket proper and E the pot, with the incendiary composition and the flame holes running out into a sharp conical head. Fig. 46 shows the shoe, B, with the screw for the priming-vault, A. The French Colonel Brulard constructed the rocket now used in the French artillery, shown in fig. 47, which represents the case. AB, BC, CD are three compositions of various strength; then follows a layer of clay, d b a, through which a fuse, f, goes into the pot of the rocket; at a a the case is closed with strong iron plate. Fig. 49 shows the outer view of the case; fig. 48, the pot, having a bursting-charge in the centre, which, kindled by the fuse f (fig. 47), bursts the pot and hurls around its loading of hand-grenades and musket-balls. To make sure that the bursting-charge is set off, even if the rocket is by any accident extinguished, and that it is lighted at the moment when the rocket reaches its destination, the plan of setting it off by percussion has been devised (fig. 50). In the iron case of the rocket, d, which has underneath, in the bottom c c, several flame holes, e e, an iron plate, i k, is fixed at top, at a b, and over the plate a cylindrical pot, containing a hand-grenade and bursting-charge, is securely screwed. The pot itself has three flame-holes in the part towards A. A is a box of cast iron, which is fastened to the rocket-case and loaded with a bursting-charge and incendiary composition. At h is a firing-rod, of iron, which stands upon a ball, n, of fulminating mercury. The instant the rocket strikes any object, the rod h is driven down upon the ball, causing it to explode, thus firing the whole charge of the pot and producing the effect. Fig. 51 is the floor of the rocket with the flame-holes. Fig. 52 is a Congreve rocket which is fired without stick, the screw-thread wound around it on the outside being designed to give it a regular motion of revolution and thus direct its flight. Fig. 53 is a Congreve rocket which scatters hand-grenades in its flight. R is the rocket proper, whose floor at T T has flame-holes, and whose filling is at Z. U is part of a case which is screwed on, serving instead of a stick, and in the iron envelope of which small hand-grenades, V, are inserted, with a bursting-charge. At the instant when the rocket is lighted the stick, U, is kindled also, and the hand-grenades are thrown out, one after another, as it flies.

To give the rockets a specific direction various apparatus are employed; fig. 54 shows one variety. Here is a tube, to which, as soon as the rocket is placed in it, the base cylinder, R X T V, is screwed fast, whose floor has a round orifice, U, for the stick of the rocket; e e are four cuts in the circumference of the cylinder, and above these is a ring-formed groove. When the rocket is placed in the tube, the ring l m v r is slipped over the stick o (fig. 55 gives a view of this ring with the flanges l, m, n, p), its flanges shoved through the cuts e e and then turned, so as to catch in the groove, whereby the tube is closed below; r v are small pipes for the priming. Fig. 56 is a rocket wagon: upon the under-frame, A, lies a bed, B, upon which stands the chest, C, in which are kept the rockets without stick. The sticks are fastened upon the bed and only attached to the rockets as wanted for use. E is the principal trestle, with the socket G, for the rocket H, for which a graduated curve, F, gives the elevation. The stick J rests upon the second upright D, in which a slide, K, is movable for the support of the stick. Fig. 57 is the upper part of Congreve’s rocket-wagon: upon the beam D slides, by means of the roller G, the bed A, on which, at B, is a hinge-joint, receiving the tube E H, which is fastened at F, and can be set higher or lower by means of the movable brace, C; in this tube the rocket stick is inserted.

Science of Fortification

The Science of Fortification teaches so to prepare any point of ground by artificial means that upon it a small number of persons can maintain themselves against the attacks of a superior force. The point in question may be fortified only for a short time, or it may be desired to prepare it, in time of peace even, to sustain a regular siege; and according to these different objects fortification is divided into temporary or field fortification, and fixed or permanent fortification. The art of fortification has been practised ever since the weak have had to defend themselves against the strong, and we may divide it, for our consideration, into three periods.


V. Plate 42: Gates and Walls of Ancient Times
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The first attempts to build stone walls were rude; the stones were piled one upon another, just as they were found, and the interstices of the larger filled up with smaller ones. Soon they progressed so far as at least to hew the front of the stone and give the wall an even exterior. Gates and openings in such walls were at first very simply made, and pl. 42, fig. 2, gives a picture not only of the oldest Cyclopean wall of Tiryns, but shows also how the gate openings were covered only with one larger stone. These openings must, of course, be very narrow, for the arch had not then been invented, and the ways which were devised to widen these passages are shown in the Spates at figs. 3 and 4, which, although they approach the shape of the arch, have yet nothing of its peculiar principle of support.

In process of time the stones came to be hewed rectangularly, and thus the wall not only attained a more pleasing appearance, but gained very much in strength and solidity. Fig. 1 shows the first beginning of such walls and the advance made in the gate openings. The most ancient example of bound masonry which has come down to us is in the walls of the city of Mycenæ, founded by Perseus (now the hamlet Charvati). These walls were, like those of Tiryns, from twenty to twenty-four feet thick (fig. 5). In these walls is found also the Gate of the Lions, with the oldest example of stone-carving, brought to light in 1842; it is represented in our view. The gate is five paces wide, and the large slabs of the floor show wheel-marks; above it is narrower, and behind it, as well as in several places in the wall, passages are found, covered with blocks of stone leaning gable-wise against each other. Upon the wall are traces of battlements.

Very soon it was perceived that a long line of wall offered an inefficient defence, and towers were added to this wall, which projected forwards from it, and thus enabled its defenders to get at the enemy at its foot. The walls of Mycenæ, indeed, show a tower of this kind, but the arrangement is seen in greater perfection in the walls of the city of Messene, founded by Epaminondas, 349 years before Christ. Pl. 42, fig. 6, shows a portion of the city wall with such a tower; fig. 9 gives the ground plan of the same, and it is seen that the walls were only faced with hewn stone and filled up within with rubbish. This construction is shown still more plainly in the horizontal section through the window of the tower (fig. 7). Semicircular towers, also, supposed to be of this same period, are found; fig. 8 gives the ground plan of such a one, said to have been discovered at Sipylos. Fig. 12 gives the ground plan of a portion of the walls of Babylon, showing a peculiar construction of the hewn stone facing with loop holes, mid fig. 13 is the elevation of a gate with its defensive towers. In all these constructions the straight line alone prevails, while the walls of Assos in the ancient Troas (now Bairam) present already traces of arch. Fig. 14 shows the ground plan for part of these walls, with indications of their peculiar construction, and exhibits also the manner in which the defence of the gate was especially provided for, it being placed back between two towers, and thus the approach to it narrowed. Fig. 15 gives the elevation of the gate with its two towers.

V. Plate 43: Walls of Greece and Rome
Engraver: Henry Winkles

An already much improved construction is displayed in the walls which connected the Acropolis of Athens with the harbor of the Piræus. These walls (pl. 43, fig. 1, elevation, fig. 2, ground plan, fig. 5, section of a tower, fig. 3, ground-plan of the upper story of a tower, fig. 4, vertical section through the wall) were laid out in straight lines, and received their flank defence by means of the towers which were carried up above the wall. The upper surface of the wall, 25 feet in breadth, had on the outside machicolated battlements, and on the inside a raised breastwork; the towers had several stories, divided from each other by layers of beams and connected by steps. The towers were so arranged also as to afford the only access to the top of the wall.

The walls of the ancient Falerii, in Etruria, which so long resisted the Romans, and was first subjected 241 years before Christ, present the earliest example of the true arch construction in the gates (pl. 42, fig. 16), which were flanked by two square towers. The key-stone of the arch is ornamented with a man’s head. The wall itself is so entirely destroyed that of the construction of the battlements, &c., not a trace remains.

Far more perfect is the construction of the arch shown in the three entrances of the Porta Veneris of Spello, in Umbria. This gate, of which fig. 10 is the plan and fig. 11 the elevation, displays besides more architectural decoration.

Of great interest are the walls of Pompeii, as affording already an example of a double and even a triple defence. Pl. 43, fig. 10, gives a perspective view of part of these walls, as restored, for upon the excavation of this city, which, as is well known, was buried during an eruption of Vesuvius, 79 b. c., by a shower of ashes, they appeared as shown in fig. 13. Fig. 11 is a horizontal section of the whole structure just above the surface of the earth; fig. 12, a similar section through the upper story of a tower; fig. 14, a vertical section through the wall; fig. 15, the same through a flanking tower. The lower part of these walls belongs to the most ancient constructions of this kind, and here for the first time water conduits appear; these, however, as well as the second row of machicoles above, and the terrace arrangements upon the towers, belong to a later period, that of the wars between Cæsar and Pompey. Pl. 42, fig. 18, is a view of the gate of Pompeii which lies in the direction of the ancient Nola, whence it took its name. This gate, which is restored in our representation, was found completely destroyed in its upper part; the arch construction, however, was unmistakable.

The walls of ancient Rome, dating from the age of Aurelian, form still a part of the environment of Rome, and are remarkable for being built of brick, whereas all the structures hitherto mentioned have been of stone. Pl. 43, fig. 6, gives a view of the Capitoline hill with its defences at the time of ancient Rome. Here also curtains of wall, straight on the outer side, alternate with towers (fig. 7); on the inside, however, the construction is different. Fig. 8 gives a perspective view of the inside of the wall, and fig. 9 the horizontal cross-section, about seven feet from the earth. From the views here given, and from the vertical section through the wall (pl. 42, fig. 19), it is seen that the rear part of the same formed what was called a cavata, a vaulted passage, open on one side, which was raised above the footway, and to which access was found through the towers, while above this covered gallery the wall appears terrace-formed. The towers, of which pl. 42, fig. 20, shows the vertical section, overtopped the walls considerably, and preserved by means of loopholes, a defence in line with the battlements upon these, while they had a second higher up on their terraces. Fig. 17 is a representation of the Appian Gate, which is remarkable as having certainly formed part of the most ancient fortification, since the lower portions of the tower and the wall are constructed of hewn stone. The superstructure, with the machicolis, is of brick, and was built in the age of Aurelian; while the two towers, sennicircular in front, but square within and behind, date unquestionably from the earlier middle ages.

As to the temporary fortification of the ancients, their field intrenchments, it was very simple, owing to the mode of their warfare. Their field fortification was confined mostly to the intrenchment of their camps, and we have seen already that this intrenchment consisted merely of a breastwork thrown up of earth, and secured with an abattis. In a camp, however, which was to be occupied for some time, a permanent camp as it was called, the intrenchment was made more enduring, and so arranged that the encamped force could resist a violent assault, or even sustain a short siege. The fortifications of such a camp (pl. 41, fig. 1) had then much similarity to those of a city, consisting also of long walls broken at intervals by flanking towers. The walls, with their battlements, were low, however, and rested upon a mound of earth. At the junction of the mound and the wall, to render the scaling of the last more difficult, was set a palisade of sharp stakes connected by cross beams, and a similar palisade was placed at the foot, so that the assailants, before they could approach to scale the wall, were exposed for some time to the missiles of the defenders. At the distance of 100 paces from the rampart, another smaller breastwork was carried around the camp; the space between the two was thickly set with caltrops (pl. 51, fig. 54). The towers were of the same height as the rampart, and were used as stations for the projectile engines; wherefore the terreplein, which ran in rear of the rampart, was made wider behind them. The winter camps were more solidly constructed, and formed as it were little cities. They were designed mostly for protecting the frontiers, and were provided with lofty stone watch-towers, which served at the same time for magazines and as dwellings for the guard cohorts (pl. 35, fig. 1). These watch-towers were no further distant from each other than the range of distinct vision, and were protected by rows of palisades and abattis. Signals were given from them at night by torches and fire, and during the day by smoke, the meaning of the signals being agreed upon beforehand.

The Middle Ages

Fortification in the Middle Ages varied in general very little from that of antiquity. The predominant activity of the higher and feudal nobility, while the burgher class in the cities were even more and more estranged from the profession of arms, caused the cities to remain open, or protected at least only by a simple wall, while fortification proper was confined to the castles of the knights and the citadels erected for the defence of the cities.

The military engineers of the middle ages, like our own, were required to solve the problem, so to arrange their works that they should mutually defend each other; whence it followed that the interior works must command the exterior. Accordingly the fortifications of the middle ages consisted usually of a ditch surrounding the whole place, of a closed circumscribing wall, and a place of retreat, in which the garrison could defend themselves even when the wall was in possession of the enemy. In the cities, whenever these were walled, there was a citadel for this purpose; in the castles, a tower, which was stronger than the rest, and independent of the other parts of the fortification.

V. Plate 44: Castles of the Middle Ages
Engraver: Henry Winkles
V. Plate 45: The Great Wall of China; Various Towers and Battlements
Engraver: Henry Winkles
V. Plate 46: Various Fortified Structures
Engraver: Henry Winkles

In the fortification of the middle ages, which we must study in burghs and castles, the following objects are to be considered:

  1. Ditches. The most ancient ditches were simple excavations without revetment, at least on the outer side (pl. 44, fig. 1a), for on the inner the vertically rising wall made the wall of the ditch. The outer side of the ditch, the counterscarp, took the natural slope of the earth, and not until later was this also made steep and revetted with masonry. Wherever it was possible, the ditches were filled with water, but frequently there was in the middle of the floor of the main ditch a narrower ditch, the cunette, which alone was filled with water, while the rest of the ditch was dry (fig. 1b). The dry ditches were always thickly set with caltrops (pl. 51, fig. 54).
  2. Bridges. The passage over the ditch was by bridges, or rarely by dikes crossing it. The most ancient bridges were simple; very soon, however, wide drawbridges were constructed, in which one part was fixed and one movable, so that it could be hoisted up. Pl. 44, fig. 12, shows the drawbridge of St. John’s gate at Provins, from without; fig. 13, from within. The draw part was attached by chains to two long beams, which reached back inside of the gate, were pulled down at that end, and thus raised up at the other, carrying the draw with them. If the draw was very light, for foot passengers alone, it was constructed as in fig. 11. If, on the contrary, the river was very broad, and the bridge of stone, there were usually one or more towers in the centre to afford a multifold and enduring defence. Pl. 46, fig. 1, shows a bridge thus secured at Sutri in Italy.
  3. Outworks. To cover the bridge, a small fortification was erected on the opposite bank, frequently only a breastwork with palisades, sometimes, especially when a remote point of importance was to be secured, a separate tower, which was connected with the main work by a subterranean or other covered passage. Pl. 44, fig. 14, shows the ground plan of such a fortification (bridge-head) lying opposite the bridge of Vincennes; fig. 15 gives the elevation also. Pl. 46, fig. 11, is the ground plan of the old Louvre, where at F, such a bridge-head and detached work may be seen.
  4. Gates. The gates of old fortifications are almost always placed in a very thick walls and flanked by two towers, so that the entrance could be more readily defended. Often the gate is double, and between the two there will be found a court inclosed by walls. The old gate of San Vincente in Spain (fig. 2) shows such a court, and the gallery which connects the towers is likewise devoted to defence. The round building; (fig. 3), which represents the gate at Brussels (towards Namur), has also an inner court for defence. In most cases there will be found, besides the main gate, a small gate for foot passengers (pl. 44, figs. 12 and 13). Between the two main gates there was yet another means of defence, namely, a grating of strong iron bars or oak beams (portcullis, pl. 46, fig. 4, view; fig. 5, plan), which was usually kept hoisted (by means of a wind-lass), and dropped only at the moment of need. This grate, B, lay between the two gateways, A and B, in a groove in the wall of the two gate towers, DD. Then double portcullises were found, as the groove in the section fig. 7 shows. Fig. 6 shows the inner view of this gate, with the wicket which led upon the tower and to the machinery of the portcullis.
  5. Towers. The long lines of fortification were flanked by towers, and important points of the works were also strengthened by such towers; they were of various forms, sometimes rectangular and vertical, as the towers of Narbonne, with small watch-towers at the corners (pl. 45, fig. 3), round, oval, conical, pyramidal, triangular, with the corners cut off, and battlements like the tower of Beaucaire (fig. 2); this last when they were at very salient angles. Frequently they were strengthened by buttresses running from bottom to top, as in the tower of Vez (fig. 4).
  6. Battlements, Turrets. The crest of the wall was set with a kind of stone shield, the battlements, behind which the defenders found shelter from the hostile missiles, and which were in use as early as the time of Homer. The battlements received the greatest variety of forms, and were always wider than the intervals between them. They were either square above (fig. 6), or pointed, or round (fig. 7), or crenellated (fig. 9), or pyramidical (fig. 8), or furnished with a little sloping roof, as in the Palace of Justice at Paris (fig. 10).
  7. Machicoulis. Windows and turrets were furnished also with certain defences to gall the foe at the foot of the wall. For this purpose there lay above the windows and gates small projections (machicoulis), with openings in their floors (pl. 44, fig. 10, of the Hôtel de Sens at Paris), through which stones, melted lead, hot pitch, or the like, could be dropped upon the assailants. The advantage of such contrivances was very soon perceived, and the whole wall was provided with similar openings. The crest of the wall in the old Bastile displays this arrangement; pl. 45, fig. 12, B, are the battlements: A, is one of those openings, which, as is seen, went from the crest of the wall through the cornice; in time of peace they were closed with grates. Fig. 13 shows the whole arrangement more clearly in section: A is the wall; C, the battlement; and B, the moucharaby or machicoulis, which goes through the cornice, D. The walls of Avignon (fig. 14) and of the castle of Mehun (fig. 11), &c., had similar arrangements.
  8. Platforms. The towers had, above the battlements, either conical or pyramidal roofs, or they were covered at top with a flat platform. For the protection of the watchmen stationed upon them, there were little turrets at the corners (pl. 44, fig. 4); and to shelter the steps from the rain a tower was erected over the stairway, the lantern (fig. 7).
  9. Windows, Loopholes. The windows and loopholes in the old walls and towers are generally very narrow, and the first lay so high (pl. 44, fig. 8) that they could not easily be scaled. The loopholes are very narrow at the outer side, and grow wider inwards. Their forms are various. Pl. 46, figs. 12–19, give the most common, some of which are also shown on pl. 45, figs. 6 and 14. The loopholes were so constructed, moreover, that even the balls or bolts which struck in them could not penetrate into the interior of the room or tower. Pl. 46, figs. 20 and 21, show the section of such loopholes: AB, is the opening of the loophole in the wall; CA is a small vault, against which the ball or bolt coming from below, as from D, for example, must strike and rebound, instead of passing into the interior.
  10. Fortress Towers, Donjons. The interior of a burgh or fortress was usually, as has already been mentioned, protected by a particular work, the redoubt. The fortress-towers, donjons as they were called, either formed part of the enceinte itself or lay entirely isolated, as in the former castle of Vincennes (pl. 44, fig. 14, plan; fig. 15, perspective view). Where these towers are extensive enough, they have also a redoubt in and for themselves. The walls of these donjons are of extraordinary thickness, and, not to diminish the interior space, the stairs are usually either in a tower by themselves, or wholly or in part in the thickness of the wall of the main tower. The tower of Montlhery (fig. 5, ground plan, fig. 6, view of the stairs) affords a good illustration of this. A is the interior hexagonal space of the very thick tower. The stairs are carried up, at first, in a separate tower B, and pass from that, by means of a strait gallery in the staircase, into the wall of the tower. The walls have loopholes, which light at the same time the interior of the tower and the staircase. In order to bring large objects on to the tower, there were trap-doors in every story. The ground-floors served as magazines, and could be reached only from the interior of the tower. The windows of the various stories were not one over the other, and, from the great thickness of the walls, the recesses of these windows made little rooms by themselves, which had stone seats (fig. 8). Sometimes very peculiar constructions are found in these donjons. An instance of this is the tower of Clansayes, in the Department of Drôme, which has a different shape in every story (fig. 2). The ground-floor, designated by A in our plan, forms a square with a pilaster buttress on each side. The loopholes present a more complicated than effective system. The middle story, of which B is the plan, forms a regular octagon, resting upon arches turned in the wall. The third story, finally, is a perfect square with rounded angles.
  11. Subterranean Space. Most castles, and particularly the donjons, had a greater or less extent of subterranean space, which was devoted to various uses. It was occupied generally for prisons or magazines; sometimes there were long galleries running underneath the ditches and having an exit far out in the open field, which were designed to afford means of communication for the garrison with the world outside, when the fortress was beleaguered. Pl. 44, fig. 9, represents a magazine under the donjon of Viviers. A particular species of dungeons were the so called oubliettes, into which prisoners condemned to die of hunger were thrown. One of the best preserved specimens of these is afforded by the tower of Chinon (fig. 3, in section). The door A leads immediately into the oubliette; about ten feet above the door are traces of beams, on which, doubtless, was a floor with a trap. The object of the oblique piece C C is not easy to discover.
  12. Fortresses. We shall give here, by a few examples, all the different parts of a fortress or castle-fort in connexion, and for this purpose we select the Old Louvre at Paris, of which pl. 46, fig. 11, represents the ground plan. A is a round tower, the donjon standing isolated in the middle of the court. B are drawbridges, leading over the ditches in front of the three gates. C are defensive towers, of which the four at the corners project considerably beyond the face of the wall, that they may better flank the straight lines (curtains). D are the dwellings, which lie in the curtains. E is the castle chapel, and F detached works beyond the ditch. The now destroyed Bastile in Paris, of which fig. 9 is the ground plan, fig. 8, a view, and fig. 10, a section, formed nearly a parallelogram, which was defended by eight towers, A, cylindrical upon conical foundations, flanking the curtains, B, whose battlements and other defensive arrangements we have already mentioned. Over the ditch H leads the drawbridge G to the only entrance of the fortress. The two courts C and D were separated by the middle building, E, which contained the dwelling of the commandant and the barracks. F were guard-rooms, &:c., for the garrison. The towers, vaulted within, were divided into stories, the floors of which were double, to prevent all communication between the stories. Under some of the towers oubliettes were placed. Pl. 44, fig. 16, gives a view of the Castle of Rheinstein, belonging to the Prince of Prussia, restored in the spirit of the middle ages.

A remarkable defensive fortification is the Wall of China, represented in pl. 45, fig. 1, which is, according to some authorities, 600, according to others, 1200 miles in length, 20 feet high, 25 feet thick at bottom and 10 at top, and erected between China proper and Mongolia and Tungusia as a security against hostile inroads. It passes over mountains, valleys, and rivers, and at regular intervals a tower is erected. Later travellers state that its dimensions as given above are much exaggerated; that though in some portions well built, in many parts it was little better than a low mud wall, and that it is now in a very dilapidated condition. This wall was commenced 247 to 210 years before Christ by the Emperor Tsching-Whang, and consisted at first of detached portions, which were united into a whole not earlier than the fifteenth century.

Modern Times

The art of fortification has in modern times made very great advances, the works especially of Erard Bar le Due, Sturm, Rimpler, above all the improvements of Vauban, Cohorn, and later, of Carnot, Virgin, Cormontaigne, and Montalembert, have brought this branch of military science to a very high degree of perfection.

Field Fortification

The object of every fortification is so to surround a spot with obstacles, that a division of troops occupying the same may defend themselves with advantage against superior numbers. If only the passing movements of an army are to be thus supported, the fortifications are but simple. A fundamental principle is, that every point of the work shall be swept by two fires, a direct and a cross or flanking fire, taking the enemy on the side; the distance, therefore, from one flanking point to another must never exceed good musket range, that is, from 300 to 480 feet.

V. Plate 47: Illustrating Field Fortification
Engraver: Gustav Feldweg

Field works are divided into three classes: open works, closed work, and fortified lines.

a. Open Works. All works not entirely inclosed by their parapet are said to be open. They are, according to their form, 1, simple redans or tenailles, which consist of the straight lines of fire (faces) meeting each other under a greater or less angle, sometimes broken and furnished with flanks. If it is desired to protect the salient by a cross-fire, the flanks are broken to the front (pl. 47, fig. 5). The redan b a b has the flanks c d, which defend the dead-angle in front of the salient a by a cross-fire. The flanks must never be more than half musket-shot distance from the salient angle, and must stand perpendicularly to the face on which they belong. If the ground is too extended for a simple redan, it is then doubled (pl. 47, fig. 6, g a b a g), and here also the flanks b d c can be broken to the front. Such double redans are called swallow-tails, and double swallow-tails when there are three salient and two re-entering angles (fig. 7), in which case the flanks are still broken forward. The salient angles must not be less than 60°, the re-entering not less than 90°. If the extent of the space to be defended or other local circumstances render it requisite, a system of tenailles is employed (fig. 9); the side of the polygon must not, however, exceed 180 feet. When a longer polygon side than this is to be defended, a a (fig. 10), it is broken repeatedly and a bastion constructed upon it. For this purpose the triangle a a a is, constructed, from the two new and the old polygon sides, and in the centre c of the new polygon side the perpendicular c b is erected, which for the square is \(\frac{1}{8}\), for the pentagon \(\frac{1}{7}\), and for the hexagon, &c., \(\frac{1}{6}\) of the side in length. Through all the points a and b, undetermined lines, a x, are drawn, and a d made equal to 2 a a, by which the faces of the bastion are given. From d perpendiculars are let fall upon a x, thus obtaining the flanks of the bastion, and if now the extremities of the opposite flanks are united by straight lines, the curtains, we have the complete trace of the bastioned front.

b. Inclosed Works. If the point to be defended is exposed to attack on all sides, the defences must then surround it, thus forming an inclosed work. The dimensions of such works, and consequently the length of their polygon sides, depend upon the strength of the assigned garrison, and whether they are to be provided with artillery. Inclosed works are either those whose polygon sides are straight sides, redoubts, or flanked works, whose polygon sides are therefore broken field-forts. Redoubts may be triangular, square, or polygonal, but with the number of sides increases also the number of dead-angles (which cannot be defended), and therefore redoubts with more than four sides are unserviceable. The side of a redoubt which is to be defended only by infantry, must not inclose more than 96 feet, and then a garrison of 360 to 390 men is required. If defended by artillery, from 12 to 18 feet are reckoned along the crest for every piece. In estimating the interior space of a redoubt, nine square feet are reckoned for each man, and for each gun 360 square feet, Redoubts are never constructed with sides of less than 42 feet.

Field forts may be regular or irregular. The regular are: star forts, and forts with half or with whole bastions. Star forts are redoubts having their side once broken, so that they have only salient and re-entering angles and no flanks; they have usually from 8 to 12 points. A star fort, if it have not more than twelve sides, is laid out by drawing a polygon of the given number of sides, in such a manner that these sides, b b (fig. 36), are of the length which is to be given to the faces of the work. Then upon each polygon side construct an equilateral triangle, b a b, and the line of fire is completed. If, however, the position of the ground determines the salient angles of the star fort, then in the centre of the sides of the polygon uniting the vertices of the salient angles, perpendiculars are erected, which are made \(\frac{1}{6}\) the length of their sides, and upon the points thus obtained the faces are drawn.

Forts with half bastions are laid out as follows: If a triangle is to be defended with half bastions (pl. 47, fig. 11), draw a triangle, f f f, whose sides have collectively f the length of the total line of fire (on which the defenders stand), prolong the sides, f f f, of this triangle towards a, so that f a = \(\frac{1}{3}\) f f. Lay off from f to e, a distance equal to \(\frac{1}{3}\) f f, and erect, at e, a perpendicular, which intersects the line a f at d, and completes the half bastion, a d being the face, d e the flank, and e a the curtain. If a square is to be half bastioned (fig. 12), erect in the middle, c, of the polygon side, a a, the perpendicular, c b = \(\frac{1}{8}\) a a, draw the lines b c x, lay off, upon these lines of defence, the parts a d = \(\frac{2}{7}\) a a, and let fall from d the perpendiculars, d e, upon the corresponding lines of defence; g h, are the lines of direction of the defenders’ fire. The polygon side of a square with half bastion may be 240 to 600 feet, and the polygon is the stronger the more sides it has.

Forts with whole bastions belong rather to permanent fortifications. To construct them, erect in the centre, c, of the polygon side, a a (fig. 13), a perpendicular, c b, which for the square must be \(\frac{1}{8}\), for the pentagon \(\frac{1}{7}\), and for the hexagon, &c., \(\frac{1}{6}\), of the length of the polygon side. Then draw from a, through the points b, the lines a b x, make a d = \(\frac{2}{7}\) a a, and let fall from d, the perpendiculars d e, upon the corresponding lines of defence, when e e are the curtains, d e the flanks, and d a the faces of the work. The curtain, which in the front. A, is straight, may be broken outwards as in the front, C, once, or twice as in the front, B, where f f = \(\frac{1}{3}\) e e. By the last construction an effective fire is obtained in front of the faces from the line e f.

c. Fortified Lines. When the ground to be defended has a great extent in one direction this long line must be intrenched. This may be done by lines without or by lines with flanks, forming salient and re-entering angles. Merely straight or curved lines not flanked present a very poor defence, wherefore they are broken, like the teeth of a saw (en cremaillière), by which they are flanked towards one side. Let it be the line N (pl. 47, fig. 1) which is to be defended; it is first divided into lengths of 360 or 140 feet, according as a single defence, as at A, or a double one, as at B, is desired. Then at d, perpendiculars are erected, d a = 48 feet, and the lines b a drawn, upon which, at a, the perpendiculars, b a, are erected as flanks. Cremaillières have, however, many disadvantages, and it is preferable, therefore, to break the long lines by simple redans (fig. 2b). The lengths, d d, amount to 720 feet, the perpendiculars, d a, are 130 feet, and the half gorge of the redan, d b, is 90 feet. Here, however, the defence is good only before Y, and in front of a lies a dead angle. It is better, therefore, to make d d only 480 feet (fig. 2a), while d a and d b maintain the same dimensions as above, whereby not only X but the angles in front of a are defended. A still better defence is obtained by the arrangement on the line M N (fig. 3), where the curtains lying between the redans, b d, b a, are broken to the front, a perpendicular, c b = 180 feet, being erected at c, upon the lines constructed as in fig. 2b and the new faces, c b and b c, drawn. Is the time so limited that redans cannot be constructed the line M N (fig. 4) is broken only into salient and re-entering angles, d b, d b d, by means of the perpendiculars, c b = 180 feet, where d d is 720 feet. Here, however, dead angles are made at X. Wherever time and ground permit the bastioned line, that is always the most advantageous arrangement (fig. 8), but the distance between the salients must be at least 300 feet and not over 720. To fortify the line M N in this manner, at the centre, c, of the polygon side, a a, the perpendicular, c = \(\frac{1}{6}\) a a, is erected, the lines, a b x, drawn, the faces, a h = \(\frac{2}{7}\) a a, laid off, and the flanks hm; let fall the perpendiculars upon the lines of defence, a b x; then m m are the curtains, which can likewise be broken forward, as in the front B, or even twice, as at Y, in the front C. For the straight curtains, as at D, the ditches must be dug out at c P F and at c O, else the shot coming from O P and F will not effectually sweep the salient, X.

d. The Profile. The chief part in fortification is the breastwork, d c b a f a (fig. 21), which is to protect the defenders from the hostile shot. Its thickness is regulated by the penetration of balls into earth, and against musket balls must be not less than three feet, but against 12-pounder balls as much as 12 to 14 feet. The exterior slope, f a, is regulated according to the consistency of the earth, the steeper it can be the better. In front of the breastwork lies the ditch, and its profile Z is governed by the profile Y, as it is to furnish the material for the embankment; it is desirable, however, to give it depth rather than breadth. The slopes may be steep, as they are cut in the solid earth. The outer slope is called the counterscarp, the inner the scarp. Between the breastwork and the scarp an off-set is left (fig. 22 a d) called the berme. The slopes must be revetted whenever possible, either with sods or with fascines, wicker-work, gabions or boards (fig. 21, p p), or with trunks of trees (fig. 22, p p). To secure the slope, f g (fig. 23), against being mounted, it can be palisaded, by setting trunks of trees, w, 10 to 12 inches in diameter and 10 to 12 feet long, 4 to 5 feet in the earth, at g, and sharpening them at the top. Trunks of trees may may be also set obliquely in the berme space, as t y at r (fig. 23). These are called fraises, and are secured above by a transvere sill, t. The interior slope of the breastwork (a b, fig. 21) is very steep (12 to 18 inches) in order that the soldier may get near enough to the crest, af. The banquette for the defenders, b c, is regulated in breadth according to the number of ranks it is to contain, and varies from 3 to 7 feet (figs. 21, 22, 23, 24). Its slope, d c, is regulated according to the elevation, and where the rampart is very high is made in steps (fig. 22). If the work is to contain cannon and the banquette is not wide enough to receive them, an especial banquette (barbette) is constructed for that purpose, provided with ramps. Figs. 29–34 show such barbettes. Fig. 29 is a simple barbette, X, upon a face or flank. Fig. 30, a ramp for mounting the terre-plein or broad banquette. The axis of the ramp, w p v, is perpendicular to the line of fire. Fig. 31 is a narrow barbette for three pieces, Y X Y, in the salient of a bastion, which is cut off at w v; t p and w v a a are the platforms for the guns. Fig. 32 is a wide barbette, for three platforms, w v and t p, for the pieces, X and y, in the bastion salient. Fig. 33 is a narrow barbette for one platform, w v, for a single piece, X, in the salient. Fig. 34 is a wide barbette, for one piece, X, for side defence, in the salient; v w is the pan coupée of the salient, b z, for infantry. If the barbettes are not high enough to permit the pieces to fire over the crest of the breastwork, af (fig. 23, to fire en barbette), then embrasures must be cut for them which are wider in front than in rear, and are either direct or oblique on the line of fire. The inner openings of embrasures are blinded, either by hurdles set before them or by a shutter, A (pl. 47, fig. 35), where two posts, g g, with a cross tie, m, are secured into the parapet on which the shutter. A, hangs by hinges and staples, X. The sides of embrasures, called their cheeks, are revetted, either with fascines or gabions. The superior slope of the parapet, a f (fig. 24), is so drawn that its prolongation strikes the surface at the point i, unless there is upon the counterscarp a second parapet, i k p g, for defence, when the prolongation of the superior slope must strike the point p. The space between the counterscarp and the parapet, i k p g, is called the covered way.

If circumstances require that a work be so placed that from neighboring points it can be overlooked and fired into (commanded), then traverses t k i l (fig. 36) are constructed in the interior. The passages e e are covered by small mounds of earth (tambours) z. Such tambours are placed also before the entrances of works. Over the ditches light bridges, y, are carried.

e. Internal Defences. In great works there are other interior defences constructed, by means of which the garrison can maintain themselves for a time, even after the main work has been carried. Such works are called redoubts; and these likewise may be either inclosed or open redoubts. They must always be large enough to contain two thirds of the garrison, and their form is governed by that of the main work. In inclosed works the redoubts are so placed (fig. 25) that their fire will principally sweep the dead-angles of the main work, as upon these points, which have only a secondary defence, the attack is chiefly directed. In open works, those especially which are so frequently thrown up to cover the passage of a river, the redoubts (fig. 26) are also constructed with fixed parapets, according to the importance of the main work; and a second redoubt, of palisades, is in such cases often added. If the works are less permanently constructed, the redoubts are made only of palisades (fig. 27), or of felled trees (abattis), or the so-called Spanish riders (chevaux de frise, fig. 28), beams, through which, in all directions, long stakes shod with iron at the points are thrust. To obtain in permanent works a better defence for the ditch, a subterranean block-house (fig. 47) is constructed in the counterscarp of the salients, under the parapet f e d (fig. 46, F, section, and fig. 47 view), into which is a subterranean entrance from D, by the gallery G. X Y is the line of the horizon, b a the prolongation of the superior slope of the parapet. In slight works, a ditch-defence is obtained by setting the palisades w (fig. 23) a small distance from the scarp, and arranging them with loopholes.

f. Defensive Means which are Part of the Works themselves. The covered way is the space d d from the edge of the counterscarp (pl. 47, fig. 36, front K K) to the breastwork which is thrown up in the open field, and affords a low defence. This construction is found only in large forts; for small ones only a simple embankment is thrown up, the glacis w w (fig. 36, front H H). The covered way is from eight to ten feet in width. To protect the garrison from being taken in flank by the fire of the enemy (enfiladed), cross-dikes (traverses) are thrown up on the long lines u u (fig. 36 front L L). To strengthen the covered way, places of arms are established in the re-entering angles d d and h; in the salients they are found ready formed at d d and v; they must also be covered by traverses. The traverses lie close to the counterscarp, and are notched in the parapet of the covered way for the passage around them. Even where there is only a glacis places of arms are sometimes established in the re-entering angles q q (fig. 36, front H H); these serve, however, principally as mustering places for sallies, and are sunk in the natural earth. If it is desired to strengthen the defence still more, a second glacis is thrown up, x x (fig. 36, G X), which, however, must be commanded by the first, and therefore renders a higher parapet necessary.

Where it is possible the ditches should be provided with water, which, when the ground is swampy, is carried to its place by collecting ditches. At the foot of the glacis and in the dry ditches trous de loup are dug, holes of eight to ten feet deep, running down to a point, in which a sharp stake is set. Palisades, also, and abattis are good defences at the foot of the glacis and in the dry ditches, as they detain the assailants within the range of fire. The chevaux de frise, already mentioned in treating of redoubts, caltrops, and small thickly set stakes, driven firmly into the ground upon the glacis, also effect this object; and fougasses, a kind of mine which we shall soon describe, serve to destroy the assailing foe.

g. Defilement. In the disposition of fortifications care must be taken that they are not so placed as to be looked into from any adjacent heights. By exact measurements, therefore, the command must be determined, and the parapet made so high that it cannot be looked over, when the work is said to be “defiled” or “defiladed;” or else traverses are thrown up, or such commanding heights as it is impossible to defile from are included within the circuit of the works. The method of defilement is as follows: Let it be the redoubt m n o p (pl. 47, fig. 14) which is to be defiled from the heights A B B, the first step is to establish the plane of defilement, v t (figs. 15, 16), so that it shall pass four feet six inches above the highest of the points A B B, and through a point Z, four feet nine inches above the plain at the foot of the glacis. In this plane v t, the crest of the ramparts n and p (fig. 15) must lie. These ramparts, however, would be very lofty, and yet not cover the defenders upon the lines mp and p o (fig. 14), but, by having recourse to a traverse m o, the height of the breastwork can be determined by the plane of the defilement v p (fig. 16), which gives the angle p command over the ground Z. By the traverse, m, the defenders at p are secured, while those at n are protected by the defilement itself. The dike at D (fig. 14) is only to be considered when it is so high as to command p, in which case a new plane of defilement, and also the traverse which must then protect n, are to be determined. Thus cases may arise where even two traverses are requisite.

h. Construction of Various Works in Fortification. As soon as the disposition of the work is determined, it is traced upon the ground after the plans, staked out, and then profiled. This last is done by setting up on all the lines profiles of laths (pl. 47, fig. 18) and strips of board, for which the profile given in fig. 17 is the original. To effect this, the distances v q, q o, o h, h k, and k m, are staked off, and at each of these points strips of board, longer or shorter as required, are driven into the ground; on these strips the proper heights are laid off, and then the slopes are given by cross laths, d c, c b, b a, and f r, tacked to the strips. After the accuracy of the profile is ascertained by measurement of the lengths e f and x y, the crest of the parapet is indicated by a stretched cord. During the construction, one third of the force is detailed to cover the work; of the remainder, three sevenths are stationed in the ditch (figs. 19, 20), two of which sevenths, provided with shovels, dig at K, while the other seventh, at L, loosen the earth with picks. The shovellers, K, throw the earth into the berme, r s. Two sevenths of the force are stationed with shovels upon the berme at M N, to send the thrown-up earth backwards, and the remaining two sevenths stand at O and P, upon the parapet. Half of these, O, have rammers; the others, shovels and spades; and both spread the earth upon the parapet and form the slopes. If the parapet is very high, and the ditches, therefore, very deep, they work in two stages, by cutting a step along the counterscarp, as at x and y (fig. 19).

i. Block-Houses. As block-houses are very effective for the interior redoubts of open and inclosed works, which we have repeatedly mentioned, we devote some separate drawings to their illustration. Fig. 53 shows the section, fig. 52 the view, fig. 51 a part of the ground plan of a small block-house, and fig. 49 the view, fig. 50 the section of the block-house in fig. 44. Upon piles, driven into the earth, sills are laid, and upon these the walls are formed of trunks of trees from ten to twelve inches thick, placed close together, side by side, and loopholed. The entrance is on the side most remote from the enemy. Inside there are two or three rows of posts, according to the depth of the block-house, which support the roof-frame joists, on which is then laid a double layer of beams, crossing each other in close contact, and projecting on all sides over the inclosing walls. Upon these beams comes a layer of earth to render the building bomb-proof. Inside, wooden bunks are placed for the accommodation of the garrison.

Fig. 42 shows a front of attack in a bastioned line, with a block-house as redoubt. The place-of-arms of the covered way, in the re-entering angle, is rounded, and the faces of the covered way cremailliered. Fig. 44 is a lunette, having its gorge closed with palisades and with a block-house there, as redoubt. The salient angle of the counterscarp contains a subterranean block-house for the defence of the ditch. Fig. 43 is a profile through the face of fig. 42, and fig. 45 the profile through the face of fig. 44. In both, the disposition of a subterranean powder magazine is indicated. Figs. 46 and 47 show the profile and elevation of the block-house for defence of the ditch, with the subterranean passage leading to it, and fig. 40 is the profile through the bridge, fig. 42, with passage (postern), f, through and under the parapet to the covered way, k. Fig. 37 represents the interior arrangement of a principal fort. Under the platform. A, in the re-entering angles of the four posts, lie the powder magazines, P. In the interior space of the work is the bomb-proof block-house, B, for the garrison, and within it the kitchen, K. Fig. 39 gives a profile through the broken line, ik, fig. 37, from which the internal arrangement of the block-house is to be seen. Fig. 38 is a profile, along GH, through the block-house and the powder magazine. Fig. 40 is the bridge and entrance postern, in section, along the line, sk, in fig. 37, and fig. 41, a section of the kitchen along gg, fig. 37.

k. Powder Magazines. Powder magazines, always subterranean, are disposed too under that part of the rampart least exposed to attack, as in pl. 47, fig. 44. They are made dry by means of frame pieces and board revetments. Fig. 48 shows the ground plan of a small, and fig. 55, of a large powder magazine. Fig. 56 gives the section of fig. 48, and fig. 54 that of fig. 55. It will be perceived that the entrance does not lead immediately into the magazine from without, but that, by means of a gallery disposed for that purpose, it is secured against the direct fires of the enemy. The height of the interior under the frame-piece is six feet.

Permanent Fortification

The old manner of fortifying by means of long straight lines with towers flanking them, was first abandoned in the sixteenth century, and it is believed that the Italians were the first to substitute bastions in place of towers. The works of earlier military engineers were improved upon by Vauban, and his system again by Cormontaigne in 1716.

Before we proceed further, we must explain some technical terms which have not been employed in treating of field fortification. The foundation of every fortification is the regular or irregular polygon, which is drawn around the place to be fortified, and whose side must not be greater than the effective range of small arms, as otherwise the flanking will be insufficient. By the breaking of these polygon sides into any figure soever arises the system of fortification. The exterior polygon is that which is drawn through the vertices of the salient angles; the interior polygon unites the vertices of the re-entering angles. The fine which bisects an angle is its capital, and the portion of the fortification lying between two adjacent capitals is called a front of attack. The construction must take place always according to the exterior polygon, as otherwise it could not be determined where the bastion points fall. The angles made by the faces are called bastion salients; angles which the faces make with the flanks are shoulder angles, and the angles of the curtains and flanks are flank or curtain angles. If a part of the flank projects forward, to cover the rest lying back of it, this forms an orillon. The line from one flank to the opposite bastion salient is called the line of defence, and its length must not exceed the effective range of small arms. The rampart immediately surrounding the place to be fortified is called the enceinte, or body of the place, and the line along which the defenders stand is the magistral. All works lying in front of the enceinte, but within the covered way, are called outworks; if outside of the latter they are detached works.

V. Plate 48: Illustrating Permanent Fortifications
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The chief part of every fortification is the rampart, which consists of the parapet and the terreplein lying behind it, on which the artillery and defenders find room for position and movement. The breadth of this was formerly taken at 24 feet, but in later times it has gone up even to 42 feet. The thickness of the parapets proper must be from 18 to 20 feet, their height 7\(\frac{1}{2}\) feet, and their slopes governed by the natural fall of the earth; in bad soil they must be even greater (H of the height). The communication between the terreplein and the interior of the place is secured by means of ramps (pl. 48, fig. 42), which are cut in the slope of the terreplein. Of the outworks, the ditch which surrounds every fortified place is the first. The ditch may be either dry or wet; there are dry ditches, however, which can at times be put under water. If the bottom of a dry ditch is moist, a canal is established in the middle of it, the cunette, to carry off the water, and over this small bridges are laid. Ditches which can be inundated obtain their water usually from some river running by the place, and are then provided with sluices. These are stone dams (Batardeaux), which run across the ditch, and have a sluice in the centre, placed in a tower which is accessible only from the fortification. Fig. 39 is the elevation of such a sluice-tower; fig. 40, the section of another; and fig. 41, the arched passage for the water. In the ditch lies, in front of the curtain, the tenaille, and in front of this the demi-lune or ravelin, the construction of which will be given in describing the different systems. While the ravelins were made very small, works similar to tenailles were placed in front of them, running parallel to their faces, and strengthening them. In the same manner a work called the couvre-face, counter-guard, or bastion shield, was run parallel to and lower than the bastion. Of this more will be said hereafter. Works often employed in the earlier systems are the horn works and crown works. One front of attack, as it is called, forms a horn work; a crown work consists of two such fronts. Both may lie either before the ravelin or in front of a bastion, and are then carried back to the main work by long flanks. Fig. 5 shows a horn work in front of a bastion, fig. 8 one in front of a ravelin: H and I are the long flanks, which must be defended from the main work. Figs. 6, 7, are a crown work before a bastion; figs. 11 to 16, the same before a demi-lune: G is here one of the connecting flanks. Detached works are independent forts for the defence of single points which cannot be brought within the region of the enceinte or the outworks, and yet must be defended. They are disposed after the manner of star forts or as open works (Lunettes), and communicate with the main work by means of a covered way. With respect to the various systems of fortification according to which works have been disposed since the 16th century, the principal of these are as follows:

  1. Gerhard von Herzogenbusch (Erard Bar le Due) was the first who established fixed rules for fortification. In his system (pl. 48, fig. 6), the half bastion angle at A and B is 45°, and by setting this off in the capital for the polygon side, ab, the lines of defence, af and bd, are obtained. Bisecting now the angle of the half bastion, and drawing the lines ag and bh, these intersect the lines of defence in d and f, from which points the perpendiculars, fe and cd, are let fall upon the faces, and these form the flanks, DD, which are connected by the curtain, C. To draw the ditches, F, describe, from a and b as centres, circles having the length of the flank for radius, draw tangents to them from the shoulder angles c and e, which intersect at E, where, in the covered way, a place of arms is disposed. This system has sometimes orillons, as, for example, at Amiens.
  2. Marolais, a Dutch engineer, constructed his system (fig. 7) for a hexagon, in the following manner, a b being the polygon side. The angle of the half bastion being fixed by Marolais at 40°, make the angles abh and kab = 20°, and draw the lines of defence, af and bf, which intersect at e. The length of the faces ag and bi is 288 feet, and from the points g and i perpendiculars, dk and ch, are drawn to the polygon side, ab. From the points g and i, set off, on these perpendiculars produced indefinitely towards h and k, angles of 55°, and join the points where the lines defining these angles intersect the capitals, by a line; this last parallel to the polygon side, will determine the length of the flanks and form the curtain. Ditches and places of arms are constructed as by Bar le Due. Marolais usually placed in the ditch, which was then made wider, a faussebraye (or lower rampart), which, below the main work and parallel with it, ran round the whole enceinte.
  3. The Chevalier De Ville, who lived under Louis XIII., improved the earlier methods, and fixed all bastion angles at 90°. De Ville constructed his system upon the interior polygon, and made the length of the flank equal to the half gorge of the bastion (fig. 5). For this he divided the polygon side into six equal parts, one part on each extremity being the demi-gorge of the bastion, AA, and the other four parts the curtain, C. By erecting perpendiculars at the two first points of division, he obtained the position of his flanks, BB, which he made equal to the demi-gorge, and thus determined the shoulder points, k and c. From these he laid off upon the prolonged capitals, angles of 45°, and thus obtained the points a and b, through which and the shoulder points he drew the lines of the faces, which intersect at m. To construct the orillon, he divided the flank into three equal parts, and drew, through the second points of division, i and d, and the points a and b, the lines ah and he, which intersect at l. Setting off now, from d and i towards e and h, \(\frac{2}{3}\) of the flank, and drawing, parallel to the flanks, the lines ef and gh, the orillon was completed. De Ville, however, did not do away with the front part of the flank, but only established it somewhat deeper than the drawn back flank, whereby he obtained a double flanking. The ditch, p, was constructed as before mentioned, but De Ville made it pass round the place-of-arms, D, also, which he somewhat enlarged and called a ravelin (demi-lune), opq, whereby he obtained yet another small place-of-arms, n, in the salient angle. In the three systems hitherto described, all the flanks have the fault of giving a too oblique defence of the ditch.
  4. Count Pagan divided his fortifications into great, medium, and small. For the medium (pl. 48, fig. 8), the polygon side a b was 1080 feet. This was bisected in c, a perpendicular erected at that point, c d = 180 feet, and the lines of defence b d o and a d p are drawn. The faces b h and a f of the bastions A and B were made 330 ft. and d m and d n each 192 ft. long. Drawing, then, h m and f n, we have the flanks and the curtain C. Pagan arranged three flanks, one behind the other, the foremost, i m and g n, slightly elevated above the bottom of the ditch, the middle, k and l, at the half height, and the last at the full height of the bastions. The length of the orillons h i and f g he determined, after De Ville, by the lines b g and a i, intersecting each other at e, and the curtain received the breaks n o and m p to make the second flanks longer. Sometimes there was disposed in the bastions A and B an elevated parapet o t q and p r s, called the cavalier. F is the place of arms, and G the glacis.
  5. Vauban’s first system (fig. 1) is applied upon a polygon side, a b, of 600 to 1080 feet. In the centre of this the perpendicular c d is erected, made for the square = \(\frac{1}{8}\) a b, for the pentagon = \(\frac{1}{7}\) a b, for the hexagon, &c., = \(\frac{1}{6}\) a b, and the lines of defence b k and a l drawn through d, a, and b. The faces a e and b h are made = \(\frac{2}{7}\) a b, and from a and b as centres, circles described with b e and a f as radii: where these cut the opposite lines of defence (at k and l) are the flank points; the flanks, e k and f l, and the curtain C can now be drawn. Vauban also made orillons, but gave them only one third the length of the flank. The first outwork which Vauban added was the tenaille, which he established at 18 and 60 feet distance from the curtain and flanks, and parallel to these, the flanks of the tenaille being cut off by the lines of defence. Hereby arose a new curtain, D, and two half bastions, E F, in the ditch, lower than the main work. Subsequently Vauban convinced himself that flanks were inadmissible, and gave the tenaille merely two faces in the prolongation of the lines of defence, intersecting at d, placing a very short curtain between them. To the ravelin, G, Vauban gave greater extension, making the faces m q and m p = \(\frac{2}{7}\) to \(\frac{2}{6}\) of ab, and drawing them from the points i and h, which are 30, 60, or even 90 feet from the shoulder angles e and f. Afterwards he gave the demilune flanks, as in pl. 48, figs. 2 and 3, which, however, proved unserviceable. The gorge of the ravelin was determined, at first, by the prolongation of the counterscarp, afterwards, however, as it was exposed to the enemy’s fire, cut off, as in fig. 2, and in the interior a redoubt disposed (figs. 2 and 3), which lay so high that its line of fire fell upon the banquette of the ravelin. The ditch (fig. 1) received in front of the bastion salients 90 to 96 feet breadth and was aligned upon the shoulder points, whereby the gorge of the ravelin was determined in g. The ditch of the demilune received at o q and p n from 72 to 80 feet breadth, and ran parallel to its faces. At r, when the ditch was dry, ran traverses for defence. The covered way he improved by defending the long lines, I, I, from the place of arms, H, by means of the traverses ss, also by enlarging it and the glacis.
  6. Still more improved were the later systems of Vauban, viz. 6, that at Landau (fig. 2) and 7, at Breisach (fig. 3). For Landau (fig. 2) the construction upon the polygon side a b by means of the perpendicular c d, is the same as before; but between the bastions A and B there lies no curtain, the tenaille, C, is advanced to the point of intersection, d, and lies on the same level with the bastion; the faces, q p and q o, of the ravelin with flanks, G, are aligned upon the much advanced points m and n, and a redoubt, H, added; the places-of-arms, K and L, made as large as possible, the line, I, defended by several traverses and secured from enfilade, and the glacis thrown very far forward. Elevated behind the front of attack proper lie the bastion towers, F F, forming redoubts, and where the prolongation of the line of defence strikes these, is formed a second, retired polygon side, f e, upon which, by means of the perpendiculars, g E, &c., a new front of attack, e h k l i f, with two half bastions, D, and a curtain, E, is constructed. For the fortifications of Breisach (fig. 3), A are the bastions, B the tenaille, a b is the polygon side, c d the perpendicular. The faces, o p, of the ravelin, F, which has a double redoubt, G, are aligned upon the points f and e, and the flanks tolerably long. The bastion towers, E E, are made much smaller, whereby the second front of attack, g h i k l m n, obtains a greater extension, and the bastions, C C, as well as the curtain, D, receive a better defence. H is a large re-entering, and I a salient place-of-arms. The place K is contracted by the adjacent hornwork. L is a large glacis.
  7. We have given, in pl. 48, various details of Vauban’s systems, most of which are found usually in those of others, or may be applied to them. Bastions may be either hollow or solid; in the hollow bastion the interior space is empty, and behind the parapet is an elevated terreplein. Then the revetment wall (fig. 33), which rises from the bottom of the ditch to the bottom of the parapet, and is terminated above by a projecting coping, has buttresses on the inner side (fig. 21, horizontal section through the revetment wall, a b c d e f g), and in rear of the same runs a subterranean gallery for mines, the magistral gallery, which gives access to the system of defensive mines, of which we shall say more hereafter. If the interior space of the bastion is filled with earth, it is called a solid or full bastion; it has then usually an additional raised work, the cavalier, and is provided with bomb-proof vaults (casemates). Fig. 19 gives the horizontal section of such a bastion, a b c d e f g, having casemates in its interior space, of which fig. 20 shows the vertical section along the line e c (fig. 19, seen from the gorge). The exit from the front of attack is always established in the centre of the curtain and is subterranean, being carried by a vaulted passage under the parapet. Fig. 22 shows such a passage (sally-port, postern): a a is the revetment wall of the main rampart; b are the side walls, and c, the buttresses for strengthening the wall; d, a separate vault for muster-place. Fig. 23 shows the longitudinal, and fig. 24, the cross-section of such a postern. Underneath this, usually, a drain is carried to lead off water. Fig. 34 is a longitudinal section through the front of attack (fig. 1): A is the terreplein; C, the curtain with the attached bastion; E, the tenaille; F, the main ditch; G, the terreplein of the ravelin, whose parapet is H; J is the ditch of the ravelin, and N, the covered way with the glacis. R are the scarp and counterscarp revetment-walls; I and G, their slopes. The inscribed numbers are the measurements in feet.
  8. The system of Vauban has been still improved upon by the French engineer Cormontaigne; his system remained for a long while, down to the time of Carnot and Montalembert, the favorite one, and many places were fortified by it. The enceinte, a e g h f b (pl. 48, fig. 4), Cormontaigne draws, for the bastions, A A, and the curtain, B, in the same manner as Vauban, with the difference only that the flanks are perpendicular upon the lines of defence. To construct the ravelin, lay off, from the point where the counterscarps of the main ditches intersect (fig. 1 g), 360 feet on the perpendicular bisecting the curtain to C, and there is the salient of the ravelin, whose faces are aligned upon the points k and i, which are advanced 90 feet from the shoulder-points. In the ditches of the ravelin are placed the traverses, K. The redoubt, c, of the ravelin runs parallel with the main work 36 feet from it and receives flanks, D, which command the somewhat lower part, L, of the main work. E is a covered way, from the tenaille, F, to the redoubt of the ravelin. The salient places-of-arms of the covered way are defended by traverses, and in the re-entering, H, the redoubts, I, are established. The glacis, M, is shorter than in Vauban’s system.
  9. The system of Count Cohorn, a renowned engineer living in Holland at the time of Vauban, is of great value, especially for countries abounding in water. One of his fronts is represented in fig. 10. It is constructed on the interior polygon, its sides, A A, containing, for the hexagon, 900 feet. The demi-gorges. A l and A k, are \(\frac{1}{4}\) the polygon side, and the capitals, AD and A c, are 450 feet long. From the points c and D the lines of defence are drawn to k and l, and, with c A: as radius, the arcs k H and l G described, from c and D, which form the flanks (usually drawn straight, however), and determine the shoulder-points, at the same time, at G and H; the curtain is then k l. In front of this lies a species of tenaille, which Cohorn called the low curtain, and which is drawn by describing from c and D, with a radius of 840 feet, the arcs o E and p F between the lines of defence, and thus obtaining the flanks; the faces, F H and E G, are then determined necessarily, and the curtain, o N p, is broken in the direction of the lines of defence. In the shoulder angles of the bastion, Cohorn placed casemated orillons, the details of which are shown in fig. 25: 1, 2, 3 are the casemates, and at h z and z y are loopholes and embrasures for the defence of the ditch; a a a are vaulted buttresses. The orillon has its own small wet ditch, F, which is filled from the main ditch and over which lead the bridges, h z, to the orillon, and g s, to the dry ditch of the lower face and curtain. The parts of the enceinte hitherto described (fig. 10) form the lower work, only the curtain, l k, lies on a level with the (presently to be described) upper work. To obtain this, describe, between the lines of defence, from c and D as centres, the upper flanks S M and R L, with a radius which is obtained by drawing a line parallel to the face of the bastion and 124 feet from it; the point where this intersects the opposite line of defence determines the radius C′ S or D R; afterwards the curtain receives the breaks, k U and l T, in the direction of the lines of defence; the terreplein between the upper and lower fronts is dry, only in front of the low flanks and the orillons is the ditch wet. In the terreplein, palisades are set before the faces. The ditch runs with a breadth of 144 feet parallel with the faces of the enceinte. To draw the ravelin W, lay off, from the point where the counterscarps of the main ditch intersect, 33u feet towards W; then, on each side of the capital, lay off an angle of 35°, which determines the direction of the ravelin faces; they are produced to the counterscarp. Within the ravelin lies the redoubt XYZ, parallel to it at 136 feet distance. In the terreplein of the redoubt a second redoubt is formed of palisades; in the dry ditch, also, in front of the redoubt, palisades are placed. D′ is a salient place-of-arms of the covered way; A′, a re-entering; and these are defended in a peculiar manner, first, by the traverses, C′, and a double glacis, and again by the palisaded redoubts, B′ (coffres). Cohorn has permitted some changes here and there in this system, so that a second and third system are recognised, but these changes are not important.
  10. Herbort, the engineer of Duke Charles Alexander of Wirtemburg, has, in his system (pl. 48, fig. 9), retained the bastions, but introduced extensively crenelled galleries (galleries with loopholes). In the interior of the bastions, A, are found the redoubts, B, provided with crenelled galleries having earthen parapets above, which are separated from the broken curtain, n o p, serving for casernes, and likewise casemated, loopholed, and having an earthen parapet above. The curtain is flanked by two redoubts, q q, casemated, and covered with earthen parapets. The bastion orillons of the enceinte, b f e g a, lie somewhat higher than these redoubts, are casemated, and have earthen parapets. The bastions themselves have still a redoubt, m, in front of which lies the ditch, k l. The flanks, r and s, lie amphitheatrically one above the other. The ravelin, z, is arranged like the bastion, and has, at c, a blockhouse for the defence of the ditch. In front of the faces of the enceinte lie bastion shields, couvre-faces, with simple earthen parapets, in whose re-entering angles lie the lunettes, x, with the blockhouses, u d t; open to the ditch, y y1 and y2, are blockhouses and traverses for the defence of the ditch.
  11. Montalembert, at last, entirely rejected the bastioned tracé, and instead of this has directed against all the fronts of attack a powerful fire of small arms from several covered stories. His first system was designed for simplicity, and exhibited (fig. 11) only two long faces, A B, between which the curtain, C, was broken bastion-like, and had in front a kind of ravelin, D; E and F were the places-of-arms of the covered-way. The second system (fig. 12) has the enceinte, a  e g h f b, constructed by means of the polygon side, a b, and the perpendicular, c d, after Cormontaigne; but the curtain, C, is separated and forms a bomb-proof, casemated caserne, which is either bastion-like as at D, or as at E leans against a tower redoubt. Fig. 35 is a view of one half of one of Montalembert’s towers. Fig. 36, the vertical section of the same. Fig. 37, the ground plan of one quadrant at the surface of the earth, and fig. 38, of the same through one of the stories. The bastions, B (fig. 12), have redoubts, A. The ravelin, F, is in its form, l m n o p q, and its points of alignment, k and i, constructed after Vauban’s second manner, and has a first redoubt, G, and a second, H. The third and most complete system of Montalembert is shown, for a regular square, in fig. 13, in the right half without the parapets. The sides of the square are drawn back in the centre, and here are found the casemated ravelin, A, of three stories, arranged above for open defence within and without. To these adjoin, next to the ditch, a crenelled, two story, casemated wall, a b, then an earthen rampart, I, then a crenelled wall, c d c, and behind this a tower, E, and last comes a third crenelled wall, f g f, in two stories. In the ditch lie four covered casemated caponnieres, G, of three stories, with 27 cannon. Beyond the ditch lies an earthen rampart, h i k i h, surounding the whole, with a free standing crenelled wall in front of it, l m n m l, which is casemated in the re-entering angles, m n m, and has there the entrances, 0. In front of G are found raised casemated faces, p q. In the re-entering angles of the earthen rampart, l m n m l, are built lunettes, H, of earth with casemated flanks, I. The lunettes have redoubts. k, in the form of free standing walls. Finally, a general covered-way, r  s  t u v u t r s, with the glacis, covers the whole fortification. Fig. 17 shows the profile of this fortification, along the line, L M, of the ground plan, and fig. 18 along R S, wherefrom the interior arrangement of the works can easily be perceived. X is the head of the tower at H in the ground plan.
  12. The system of Carnot (fig. 15) consists of a general enceinte formed by a great wall, b a c c a b, without any revetment of earth, made up of a series of redans, whose flanked angles, b, lie 600 feet from one another, and whose faces, a b, form right angles with the flanks, a c. The wall is 26 feet high, 9 feet thick, and crenelled in two stories, save on the flanks, which have embrasures and mortar casemates. Thirty-six feet from this wall is the foot of the enceinte proper, m m, which is composed of bastions and curtains, covers the enceinte, B, and has in front of it the wall, p q r f, 6 feet thick, and 24 feet high, crenelled in one story, which is united with the above mentioned curtain by defensive casernes, k, having earthen parapets above. In front of the curtain lies the tenaille, t t, whose faces are 360 feet long. In the re-entering angle of this is a ditch caponniere, and at g are passages in the flanks. Between the couvre-faces, I, is erected the cavalier, L, and in front of this lies the ravelin, H, for sallies and to cover the couvre-faces. The profile (pl. 48, fig. 32) along N M, shows the general enceinte with the earthen rampart, B, the enceinte wall, C, the tenaille, e, and the ditch caponniere, v w. Fig. 31 is a profile along O P, and shows the cavalier, L, the demi-lune, H, and the glacis, which slopes towards the works (en contrepente); the profile, fig. 30, is along the line, Q R, and shows the bastion, h, the wall, q, the couvre-face, J, and the glacis.
  13. The system of Dufour (fig. 16) is based in general upon the bastion system. The enceinte, a e g h f b, of bastions, A B, and curtains, C, is constructed by means of the polygon side, a b, and the perpendicular, c d, and has in front of the tenaille, E, a caponniere, D, for communication with the ravelin, whose faces are constructed as by Cormontaigne. In the salient angle of the ravelin is found a cavalier, F, for protection against enfilade. The ravelin has besides the cut-offs G and H, which serve for defence of the ditch as well as for redoubts to the places-of-arms, I and K. The ravelin faces consist of an earthen rampart, the flanks of crenelled walls, the covered-way of the ravelin has four traverses.
  14. The system of the engineer Chasseloup (fig. 14) has chiefly in view the protection of the defend«rs at every moment against the effects of the hostile fires, and contains much covered space. His polygon side has 1800 feet. The main enceinte, a b c d d c b a, is bastioned, and has its faces, a b c, broken, that they may not be ricocheted. For the protection of the advanced works there are, in the great bastions, casemated cavaliers, c. The branches of the covered-way have such a direction, that by means of these several direct fires are brought upon the capital, and in the places-of-arms of the covered-way are established bomb-proof redoubts, A, covered with earth. To reach the covered-way more conveniently, ramps, r, are placed at the necessary points. The salient angle, D, of the ravelin, is the apex of an equilateral triangle, the ground lines of which are determined by two points, on the bastion faces, 291 feet distant from the shoulder angles. The ravelin faces, made up of coupures (cut-offs), as well as the faces of the redoubt, E, run parallel to the lines of this triangle. The redoubt, E, is a casemated lunette, covered with an earthen parapet, of one story, save in the gorge, where it has two, and separated from the enceinte by the glacis, W. The main work in Chasseloup’s system is the work F, which possesses great capacities for defence. The faces are covered by the glacis, and the flanks by the caponnieres, P; it is unassailable from a distance, and first becomes effective when the enemy has arrived upon the glacis, W. Chasseloup has protected all parts of the enceinte where breaches can be established by vaulted buttresses and magistral galleries. To prevent the enemy from making the passage of the ditch in the direction of the breach towards the faces, Chasseloup has provided the great bastions with the cavaliers, C, which must be separately taken. The elevated casemates, A, first become effective when these cavaliers are attacked, and in consequence of this fire and that from the cavalier, c1 the enemy is compelled to make a lodgment on the breach, which is swept from c2; c3; with the casemate, g, supports c2, and covers the exit h. At e are bomb-proof sheds, for the pieces from c2 when not in use; f are vaulted casernes for the protection of the ditch and of the exit. Pl. 48, fig. 28, shows a profile along the line, N O, through the main enceinte and the tenaille. Figs. 26 and 27 show two profiles, along the lines G H and KI, of the redoubt of the demi-lune, and fig. 29 a profile along the line, L M, of the redoubt of the places-of-arms of the covered-way and the attacked traverses. Alessandria in Italy is fortified upon Chasseloup’s system.

Attack and Defence of Fortified Places

V. Plate 41: Roman Military Structures and Techniques
Engraver: Henry Winkles

In ancient times, when the art of fortification was yet in its infancy and when all siege engines were exceedingly inefficient, a siege was a most tedious affair; instances are not wanting where one has lasted even for many years. A cursory survey of the ancient method of carrying on a siege may here precede our passage to modern times. The fortification to be besieged was shut in on all sides, to cut off its communications and means of subsistence; for this purpose it was surrounded with double walls of circumvallation, between which the besieging army encamped, and by means of which it was defended, as well from the assaults of the garrison as from exterior attacks. Pl. 41, fig. 2, shows the circumvallation which Scipio established when he besieged the city of Numantia, secured by its position upon a mountain from storm. If, on the contrary, a fortress was to be stormed, it was then approached, much as at the present time, by means of trenches. Fig. 3 gives a representation of Cæsar’s siege of Massilia; here stone siege towers (pl. 35, fig. 2) were first built, which served at once for guard and watch towers and for casernes. From these the fortress was gradually approached by means of covered communications (fig. 7 A), and with palisades and mounds of earth (B), a parallel was established as at present. The ditch being attained the tortoises (C) went forward, by means of which the ditch was filled up and a dike constructed for bringing up not only the battering-ram but the movable siege towers to the foot of the wall, and for the passage of the besiegers to the assault of the breach. All works were carried on, before the completion of the galleries of communication and the parallel, under cover of the movable screens, DD. In the Middle Ages also this method of siege was practised, but then many subterranean galleries were wrought, which must have been of great dimensions, for we know that in the fifteenth century single combats on horseback were carried on in such mine galleries, as for instance the one between King Henry V. of England and the Sire de Barbazan, commandant of Melun, in the year 1420.

In our own times the reduction of a fortified place may be effected either by blockade or investment, by surprise, by an unexpected open attack, by bombardment, or, finally, by a regular siege. What is meant by the four first methods is explained by their names; we have to do, therefore, only with the last.

Attack of Fortified Places

V. Plate 49: Illustrating Attack and Defence of Fortified Places
Engraver: Henry Winkles

If a fortress is to be formally invested, it is first surrounded, to cut off all succor and assistance, with a line of circumvallation, established at about two miles distant, and constructed according to the rules of fortification; or at least all roads running to the place are taken possession of, and all the adjacent villages and important localities. At the same time, depots for artillery and siege material, magazines, &c., are established. From this line of circumvallation, or from the occupied points, approaches are now made, by means of ditches of communication (boyaux), upon the prolongation of the capitals of the front destined to attack (pl. 49, fig. 1), which ditches run in zigzag, so as not to be enfiladed from the place. When within 1800 feet of the fortress, that is, near the foot of the glacis, a trench is established, the first parallel, which surrounds the whole front to be attacked. The first parallel serves as a place of assemblage for artillery and infantry, and for the location of those batteries from which curved fires are to be given, that is, for the enfilade and ricochet, and for the mortar batteries. These batteries should enfilade, not only the long lines of the front attacked, but also the curtains of the adjacent fronts. Not to interfere with the communications, the batteries are established, not in, but before or behind the parallel. From the first parallel approaches are again continued by boyaux in zigzag still upon the lines of the capitals, until a distance of about 900 feet from the covered-way is attained, when the second parallel is established, which, as well as the first, must be secured from attack at the extremities. In this parallel, which serves properly only as a place for rest and assemblage, batteries are seldom established, at most some elevated counter-batteries, and especially mortar batteries. Still approaching, by means of the boyaux (pl. 49, fig. 3 d d), the third parallel, g g, is established near the salients of the covered-way, and in this are placed the counter-batteries, x. Between the second and third parallels, a half parallel is usually established (figs. 2 and 4), which incloses the bastion of the attacked front, and serves to cover the further advance of the boyaux by a fire of small arms, or to attack with the fire of artillery points which could not be properly reached from the second parallel. When approaches are continued from the third parallel, upon the line of the capitals, against the salients of the covered-way, high masses of earth are thrown up on the right and left of the line of the capitals, the trench cavaliers (fig. 3 hw), by means of which the besiegers can look into the places-of-arms of the covered-way. The salients being reached, the crowning of the covered-way is established, parallel to the crest of the same, and here the breaching batteries are placed (fig. 2), by means of which the revetment wall of the front of attack, the salients, L, of the ravelin, the two bastion salients, AA, and the two shoulder angles, BB, are sought to be destroyed. The covered way being cleared of the enemy, subterranean galleries, mn and wn (fig. 3), are dug, leading out from the crown to the bottom of the ditch, or to the level of the water in it, and the descent into the ditch is begun, from which the passage of the ditch is effected, either by a covered-way, or by means of a dyke or a bridge. The breach being reached, a lodgment is effected, upon it, and from thence upon the different works to be taken.

1. Works of the Trenches. The lines by means of which a siege is carried on must, as they are constructed under fire of the enemy, be very hastily made. The slopes towards the foe remain un worked; the interior ones, however, must be very steep, wherefore they are supported usually by gabions. The trenches nearest the fortification are called saps, of which there are various kinds.

  1. The Uncovered sap is a simple ditch, 3 feet deep and 18 feet wide, having, on the side towards the enemy, a parapet with a banquette.
  2. The Flying sap is carried on under cover of gabions, 3 feet high and 2 feet in diameter, placed by the laborers immediately along the trace. Upon the gabions, fascines or sand-bags are placed, until the parapet is 4\(\frac{1}{2}\) feet high. The ditches are 3 feet deep, and 9 feet wide at the bottom. A banquette, 1 foot wide, is constructed.
  3. The Half sap has no banquette, and there are only gabions, filled with earth, sap-fagots, or sand-bags.
  4. The Full sap. For this, each sapper brigade consists of four men. The first rolls before him a sap-gabion, A (pl. 4[9], fig. 5, view and ground plan), sets up the gabions x, side by side, towards the fortification, and digs the ditch, y, 1\(\frac{1}{2}\) feet wide and 1\(\frac{1}{2}\) deep; the succeeding sappers deepen and widen the ditch each 6 inches, and place between the gabions sap-fagots, p. Ordinary laborers then complete the ditch to 3 feet deep and 18 feet wide and place the fascines, z.
  5. The Old sap (fig. 6) is also cut in steps by four sappers following each other; its ditch is 4 feet deep and 6 feet wide; the earth is employed for the parapet, B. When the old sap is employed to cut into the parapet of a hostile work, the ditch is made only half as wide, and at the foot of its parapet two sand-bags, z, are laid one upon the other, for a banquette. A blind of fascines is also established upon the parapet.
  6. The Covered sap (fig. 7) consists of two full saps. A, running parallel to each other at 4 feet distance, over which, after the masses of earth, M, are thrown out, a cover of beams, k, is laid, and thereupon fascines and sand-bags, and, finally, a layer of earth, D.
  7. The Single traverse sap (fig. 8) is a full sap, A, which advances, not in a direct line, but in rectangular or snakelike turns. It is constructed like the full sap, but as it is usually employed for crowning the covered-way, the traverses, z, are placed in it. At the securest points are made ramps, x, in the rearmost slope of the trench.
  8. The Double traverse sap (fig. 9) consists of two single ones, running parallel to each other at 4 feet distant. It is 10 feet wide at the bottom, and is employed in advancing upon the capitals of the work. The double sap being completed, ordinary laborers throw out the intervening mass of 4 feet thickness of earth.
  9. The direct double sap, or double sap with tambour traverses (fig. 10), consists of two single traverse saps, the parapets of which are turned outwards, and which run parallel to each other, 12 feet apart. At fixed points, A, the one sap turns at right angles to the right, the other to the left, and then to the left and right twice, until they again come together, and so on; thus arise the 24 feet traverses, B, which cover the passage, C. The masses of earth, G, are thrown out afterwards. These saps go out from the third parallel upon the salients of the covered-way.

If the ground is unfavorable for the sap, various means must be applied. Thus,

  1. on rocky ground, where there is only one foot of earth (pl. 4[9], fig. 11), from two to three rows of gabions are set up, one foot from the trace, and filled with the earth which is at hand. If necessary, the parapet is heightened by the fascines, yy, and the banquette made of sand-bags, z, or several rows of gabions, x (fig. 12), are placed one on the other, and the banquette, z, made of fascines,
  2. Upon naked rock (fig. 13) the materials for filling must all be brought. Several rows of gabions, x, are set up and filled with sand-bags, y, with which also the parapet is completed, and a banquette, z, made. If, on such ground, a sap is to be carried forward under fire of the enemy’s small arms (fig. 14), then the blind, A, is set up before the commencement of the work, and only under its cover is the parapet, B, to be constructed of gabions, x, and fascines, and of the earth brought from the rear.
  3. On marshy ground (fig. 15), if at a distance from the place, a dyke, ab, is constructed of water-fascines laid crossing each other, and the required earth taken from the ditches, qq. The parapet, x, is 6 feet high, of fascines with earth, and the banquette, z, of fascines or sand-bags. If the work is under fire (fig. 16), a dyke, ab, is made, like a, sap, behind a rolling gabion, and as soon as it is completed the parapet is constructed of three rows of gabions, x, and an upper row, y, but the banquette is made of sand-bags, z. If the soil is only swampy in parts, the communications may be preserved over these by means of wooden trestles, m (fig. 17a front view, fig. 17b side view), which are pressed down into the soft earth, bridged over, and covered by the blind A.
  4. Upon overflowed ground, the construction is as in fig. 15; but when water is found at the depth of two feet, the parapet is built of earth, x (fig. 18), taken from the ditches, qq, run in front and rear. When this work is done under fire (fig. 19), the blind, A, is set up in front, and the parapet, x, is made, either of gabions or fascines entirely, or earth is thrown up in aid from a ditch run in the rear.

2. Works of the Third Parallel. The third parallel, gg (fig. 3), being completed, approaches are pushed forward by the direct double sap, y, and, on arriving within about one hundred feet of the places-of-arms of the covered-way, curved trenches, oo, are carried to the right and left, from the corners m m, until they reach the prolongation of the faces of the covered-way, and here are erected the trench cavaliers, h i k w. To build these on the scarp of the sap-ditch, q (fig. 20), a gabion, b, is set and filled with earth, then the ditch is widened for the parapet, one or two rows of gabions, c, are placed, and upon these the gabions d, which are covered with fascines, and thus the parapet carried still higher. The banquette is made with two or three steps of fascines or sand-bags, k. After completion of the trench cavaliers, h i k (pl. 49, fig. 3), two saps are carried out, from o towards x, 16 to 24 feet from the crest of the covered-way, and the crowning of the covered-way is constructed with the traverses b. While the breaching batteries are here disposed and executed, the descent into the ditch is begun, which goes, in dry ditches, to the bottom; in wet, to the level of the water. It may either be covered, and formed in steps, or covered and an inclined plane, or open. When there is a good loamy soil, the first construction is chosen (fig. 21); the angle of descent is determined according to the horizontal distance, A b, from the point a, and the height of the counterscarp-revetment, K, at A D, allowance being made for the horizontal piece, D m, to the bottom of the ditch, and the number of steps is fixed. Then, in the lodgment, Q, the slope, Q s, is excavated, so that when it comes to the slope, X, it is three feet below the line A Z, and now begins the excavation of the descent, which is made seven feet high, and five feet wide. The commencement is made by setting up a frame, c g w g (fig. 22), as soon as the excavation has been carried one foot. Then it is dug two and a half feet further, and the second frame, h, set fourteen inches deeper. The two are connected by laths, d. Then two-inch planks, y, are driven in behind and over the frame, until the whole gallery is sheathed. The construction is continued in this manner, forming the steps, c o p, until the point m is reached, whence the passage is horizontal; the revetment wall, K, is broken through and supported by stones. The descent after the second manner is made open. For this purpose a blind (fig. 24) is used, which consists of two side-pieces, x, and the transoms, y and z. In the oblique excavation, which goes on constantly behind a traverse (fig. 23), the earth is thrown to the sides; as soon as it has advanced about twelve feet, the blinds (fig. 24) are placed, and over across these the roof beams, b (fig. 25), which have notches at r r. Upon these come three rows of fascines, crossing each other, and then three feet of earth. The revetment-wall being reached in one or the other manner, the passage of the ditch is commenced, which for dry ditches is simple. In wet ditches a dike is constructed (fig. 23), by throwing in stone, D, and laying water-fascines, g k o, secured by pickets of the breadth required, and two feet above the level of the water. The completed portion of the dike is covered by a parapet of gabions, sand-bags, and fascines, x R v z. If, instead of a dike, it is preferred to construct a floating bridge (fig. 26, view, fig. 27, ground-plan), then hurdles, a, of fascines are first laid to the breadth required; crosswise upon these, a second layer, g, and then the third hurdle layer, h. Upon these come two beds of sleepers and stretchers, crossing each other, x y and w o p, the fields of which are filled up with brushwood, and upon this is laid a bed of fascines, k. It is covered by a parapet, R V, as in the case just described.

V. Plate 50: Illustrating Attack and Defence of Fortified Places
Engraver: Henry Winkles

3. Construction of Batteries. For the building of the requisite batteries and the work of the trenches, various implements and materials are required, which are represented on pl. 50. To these belong the tracing-line (fig. 7), the mason’s level (fig. 8), the square (fig. 9), the plummet (fig. 10), the mattock (fig. 11), the spade (fig. 12), the hand-rammer (fig. 13), the two-man-rammer (fig. 14), and the scraper (fig. 15) for levelling the slopes. Gabions (fig. 18) are made by setting up the requisite number of stakes, in a circle of the proper dimensions, in the earth, and then interweaving them with flexible twigs (fig. 16a, view, fig. 16b ground plan). Sometimes in the weaving, wooden circles (fig. 17a) are intermingled, whereby the work goes on more rapidly. The basket being finished, the upper layer is bound with withes (fig. 17b), so that the basket-work may not come out. Every gabion has two anchors (fig. 19) to fasten it in the earth. Fascines (fig. 23b) are made upon a fascine-horse (fig. 20), of slender and straight brush-wood, fifteen feet long and one foot in diameter, and bound at every fifteen inches with withes. For this purpose they are choked upon the choking-frame (fig. 21) by means of the fascine-choker (fig. 22), and tied immediately, close to the choke. Sap-fagots (fig. 23a) are only three feet long; at a and b they are tied, and a picket-stake is thrust through them. Sand-bags are of canvas, and filled with sand; are one or two feet long, and one foot thick; they are of various forms (fig. 24a, b and fig. 25).

Siege batteries divide into first and second batteries. The first are to silence the enemy’s fire, and destroy his means of defence; the last are to effect breaches. If the front of a battery forms various salient and re-entering angles, it is called an indented battery, or battery en cremaillère, A B (fig. 46); but if part of the battery, A B (fig. 47), say f g h, must lie further back than i k, it becomes a broken battery. Is the ground boggy, and a battery to be established behind the dike A (fig. 2), then the wooden barbette, a b, is constructed, and we have a scaffold battery. Masked batteries are those whose embrasures are first opened when their fire commences. If the ground rises terrace-formed, and upon the higher part, a b (fig. 1), some pieces are placed, such a battery is said to be in tiers. If the terreplein, a b (fig. 37), forms the floor of the battery, it is a horizontal; but if its floor lies below that, it is a sunken battery (fig. 33); and a raised battery when its pieces stand higher than the horizon, A battery which stands perpendicularly opposite the point fired upon is a direct, every other an oblique battery. The pieces stand in the batteries from 12 to 18 feet distant from each other, and there must be from eight to ten feet clear space in rear of them. In the breaching batteries, however, the pieces stand closer. The thickness of the parapet is, according to the consistency of the earth, from twelve to twenty feet, and its height for horizontal batteries from six to eight feet. The embrasures are either half or wholly cut out. Pl. 50 figs. 26 and 27, are wholly cut out; fig. 33 shows one half cut out, the sole, i f, meeting the superior slope at f, and the wedge, x, not being removed. The ricochet and howitzer batteries receive such embrasures, as they fire only in high curves. The earth for the batteries is obtained from the ditches, U (fig. 30), excavated in their front and rear. Is a battery so placed that it can be enfiladed from the fortress, then its flank is covered by an epaulenient, or else broken and mounted with guns. If the battery is not in the parallel, it must be united with it by ditches of communication (N); if in it, then a ditch of communication is carried round in the rear (N, fig. 32), All pieces stand in the batteries upon wooden platforms. These platforms (fig. 29, side view, right; upper view, left) consist of three sleepers, hhh, upon which the platform planks, ppp, are bolted down; a sleeper, u, being substituted for the last, to check the recoil. For the safe preservation of the ammunition, bomb-proof powder-magazines are constructed within batteries (D, fig. 30), large enough to contain the supply requisite for one day’s service. In mortar and howitzer batteries, a separate place, E, is excavated for the shells and howitzes. All these magazines are connected by galleries (qk) with the interior of the battery.

Before the actual construction of a battery can be commenced, its location in the parallel must be determined, its position above or below the horizon, the direction of its axis of fire, the number and kind of its pieces, and the circumstances under which it is to be built, as well as the materials which are to be employed. The earth is obtained usually from ditches practised in front and rear of the battery; as, however, most of the slopes require to be steeper than the natural slope of the earth, a revetment must be given to them. For this purpose, fascines and gabions are employed. Fig. 28 gives the interior view of a horizontal counter-battery, which is revetted to the level of the embrasure soles with fascines. These fascines are fastened against the parapet, as shown in the section (figs. 26, 27), by means of anchors from two to five feet long, and anchor-stakes, which must extend so far into the parapet as to be within the natural slope of the earth. The right half of fig. 28 shows the fascine revetment continued to the superior slope of the parapet, while on the left this revetment is effected by means of gabions, which must also be anchored, as shown in fig. 19. The sole of embrasures is never revetted, but their sides (cheeks) may be revetted either with fascines (fig. 26) or hurdles (fig. 27). We will now describe some particular kinds of battery, and give the details of their construction.

To construct a horizontal breach or counter-battery under the grape and musketry fire of the enemy, the method of procedure is as follows: Let the battery (pl. 50, fig. 42, ground plan, fig. 43, section) be destined for four 12-pounders: the front, GH, according to the line of direction, RL, being oblique to, and 120 feet distant from, the second parallel. From the two points, n, in the parallel, W, the full saps, n G and n H, are carried in the directions G and H; the sappers then proceed parallel with R L to pp, inclosing a space large enough to yield earth for the battery; then the sappers approach each other from the two opposite points, until the sap, pp, is completed; and at GH a flying sap is thrown up to determine the fire line. The axes of the embrasures are then staked out, the breadth, bb, of the barbettes, A, marked off; between them the ditches, mo, running towards W, and on the outside of the two outer pieces the twelve-feet wide ditches, st, running in the same direction, are dug out. Having arrived at t and o, 38 feet from GH, the whole mass of earth, U, lying in rear of the battery, is dug down three feet, and applied to the formation of the breastwork. Meanwhile other workmen establish between the barbettes, A and GH, a sap with gabions, z, which, filled with earth, afterwards support the sleepers of the platforms. The ramps, B, are also dug, and the mass of earth, U, three feet deep, in front of the battery, is thrown up on the parapet In rear of the battery, two magazines, D, are established. The line of direction of an embrasure, when the parapet is completed, is determined, under the hostile fire, as shown on pl. 49, fig. 36. To the laths, ab, the rods, ac and bd, are fastened, the laths laid upon the superior slope, in rear, exactly on the middle line of the embrasure, and by moving the foremost end of the rod, bd, sighted into line, this line is prolonged backwards by sighting-in the stakes, e f. The direction of the cheeks (pl. 50, fig. 3), ce and df, is obtained by laying off upon the prolonged line of direction, ab, from seven to eight feet, and digging out the cheeks in the prolongation of gc and gd. If the line of direction of an already completed embrasure is to be changed, a new line of direction is first determined, and then either the embrasure alone is merely moved (fig. 4), or the parapet is cut into, or an offset made upon it (figs. 5,6). A horizontal battery in the parallel, built out of the range of the enemy’s fire, is shown in fig. 44, which gives the ground plan, and fig. 45, which presents the section. W is the parallel, GH the fire line, A the battery platforms, U the ditches, N the ditch of communication in rear of the battery, BCE are entrances, D the magazines. Of a horizontal battery in rear of the parallel (fig. 40 shows the ground plan, fig. 41 the section). W is the parallel, GH the parapet, UU the ditches of communication, which are protected by the parapets, M; D are the magazines, V the ditches; the piece, NO, of the parapet of the parallel, is cut out and covered by the barbettes, PP. Fig. 32 gives an example of a sunken battery in the parallel. It is for three 12-pounders and one mortar. GH is the parapet (with embrasures according to fig. 33, if); B is a traverse, which separates the mortar from the cannon; N the ditches of communication, and D the magazines. Fig. 38 is the ground plan, fig. 39, the section of a sunken battery, oblique in front of or behind the parallel. The signification of the letters is the same as in the preceding figure. GI is a piece of the parapet, which is raised higher to cover the battery. The arrangement of the elevated battery is shown by the ground plans (figs. 34, 36), and the sections (figs. 35, 37). Here, a piece of the parapet on the side towards the hostile fire must always be carried up at the same time for a cover. In figs. 34 and 35, the pieces fire en barbette; in figs. 36 and 37, through embrasures. Fig. 31 is a rear view of a battery of 24-pounders before the Algerine fortress of Constantine.

Defence of Fortified Places

So soon as the front of attack is known, it is properly armed, and embrasures are everywhere cut, when the construction of service magazines, for daily use, is at once proceeded to. Fig. 48 shows the arrangement of such a magazine, on a dry bottom. The timber-work is composed of the sleepers, a, the posts, b, the cross-pieces, g, and the string-pieces, c, the lining of the boards, e, and the pieces, d. Upon the string-pieces, c, and the roof-beams, q, the fascines, hh, a bed of loam, l, and finally a bed of common earth, K. The roof is braced by the strutts, m, which are mortised into the sleepers, n, and the whole structure is protected by the embankment, m, against the hostile shot. If the bottom is moist, a foundation is requisite according to fig. 49. The gates are all barricaded; bomb-proof barracks are built; and all the parapets of the covered-way made accessible by means of sally-ladders, A (fig. 50), supported upon posts, x. The next step is the arrangement of cut-offs in the attacked bastions, ravelins, and places-of-arms. If the bastions are hollow, it is best to close the gorges by a straight line, but for full bastions the proper cut-offs are shown in pl. 49, figs. 28, 29, 30, and 31; in the demi-lune a redoubt, A, is placed (fig. 32), with flanks, pq, and in the faces the coupures, vwx. The branches of the covered-way are strengthened by the double palisades, w (fig. 33), between the traverses, P and V. Fig. 34 gives the ground plan of a wooden tambour in the salient place-of-arms; fig. 35, its section. The interior space, p, of the tambour is so narrow, that shells falling upon the roof-screen, w, roll over the counterscarp into the ditch.

Pioneer and Pontoon Service


V. Plate 51: Illustrating the Pioneer and Pontoon Service
Engraver: Gustav Feldweg

Thus far we have treated only of attack and defence above ground; but there is a subterranean warfare also, carried on by means of mines, and this is the duty of the corps of sappers and miners or pioneers, and its rules form a separate department of engineering. If gunpowder be inclosed in mason-work, earth, or rock, and then fired, the explosion drives away all the parts which can yield. Such an arrangement, so prepared as to be fired at any instant, is called a mine; the inclosure containing the powder is the chamber, but the chamber itself when filled is the oven (fourneau). Mines are employed to blow up the walls of the fortification, the works of the besiegers, and in case of necessity part of their troops. In the practice of mining, a shaft is first sunk, and from its bottom a gallery, the mine-gallery, carried out to the spot where the fourneau of the mine is to be placed. To sink a shaft, a curb (pl. 51, fig. 5), a b c d, whose cross-pieces lap eighteen inches over each other, is first sunk; the excavation continues until the second curb, a b (fig. 6), is laid, and then boards, a (fig. 4), are thrust down between the curbs and the earth. Between the boards, a, and the second curb come wedges, and the two curbs are connected by strips, b. The excavation is now continued to the third curb, cased, and so on till the shaft is deep enough. The curbs are placed four or five feet from each other, the two last, however, being always the height of the intended gallery apart. The side of the shaft, when this is to lead out, is not cased, but the first frame, c (fig. 9), (chassis) is placed in the earth. The excavation is now carried horizontally, placing new chassis, e f, every two or three feet, and casing with boards as in the shaft, but only on three sides. For earth of very loose consistence the chassis a b c (fig. 7) is employed, which is put together in the gallery in the manner shown at a c (fig. 8). If the excavation is carried from the surface of the earth to the depth designed for the bottom of the gallery, this is called working the gallery above ground (pl. 51, figs. 1, 2, 3). Then strong beams, a (fig. 1), are laid across the space, and sunk in the ground, so that they extend on each side three feet beyond the side of the gallery, the breadth of which is determined by the beams, b, laid upon these. These squares being dug out four feet deep, a new propping is formed by means of the pieces c and d (figs. 1, 2), which are mortised into the short pieces e (fig. 2), at five feet distance from each other, boards having first been driven in behind b and e. The strips, h, keep the pieces at the same distance. Fig. 3 shows the cross-section of the gallery. The excavation being completed, the frame for a wooden gallery is set up, or a gallery is built of mason-work. At the extremity of a mine gallery, a b (fig. 11), the chamber, A, is hollowed in the side wall, b d, so that it stands six inches from the top wall; if the gallery has a fall, b d must be levelled. The size of the chamber is governed by that of the box, g f c d (fig. 12), which it is to contain, and which is filled through the vacant space a b f g. The box g f c d is partly sunk in the floor h i. The saucisson, a tube one inch in diameter made of canvas filled with powder (a, fig. 10), lies in the wooden fuse-case, b c d e, secured by the slings, g, and passes at e (fig. 12) into the powder-box, where it is fast nailed. The powder-box being filled, is tamped in the following manner. The vacant space, A (fig. 14), above the box, B, is filled with pieces of wood; in front of this powder-box 2-inch plank, b, are laid over one another to the roof, c c, cased with the boards, a, braced by the pieces, d, and then the vacant space filled with stone. The part of the tamping, c c c c (fig. 27), being completed, the gallery along C c is tamped with stone or sand-bags, strengthened every six feet by pieces of wood, e. When the mine is to be fired, the end of the saucisson is nailed upon a board, cut open, and set off by a piece of lighted tinder. For this purpose the box-trap (fig. 15) is used. Upon its slide, A, lies the tinder, b, which, when the slide is drawn out, falls and kindles the powder at c. If a number of fourneaux are to be fired at the same time, for instance ten fourneaux, A (fig. 16), the saucissons are laid as shown in that figure. If saucissons are led from the fourneaux only to the main gallery (fig. 17), at each entrance by a small gallery, a block, A (figs. 17 and 18), with a ring, x, and at the turn of the gallery, the block B (figs. 17 and 19), with the roller y, are fixed, and then a cord, soaked in linseed oil, led through the rings and over the roller; by means of this cord the slides of all the box-traps in fig. 16 can be drawn at once. The charge of a mine is regulated according to the effect desired from it. When a mine, a (pl. 51, fig. 20), is fired in firm ground, it first lifts the earth above it in a gentle hill (fig. 33); this hill being raised so far that its boundary extends to the margin of the crater of explosion, h h h h (fig. 20), flame and smoke break out, and then follows the explosion; a part of the earth is thrown towards X, the other is pressed into the side walls, h. The line a o is called the line of least resistance, g c k c g is the sphere of action, and h h the crater of the mine, of which the upper surface is called the surface of explosion, its circumference the circle of rupture, the lines o h radii of the crater, and the lines ha radii of explosion. The sphere of action extends to m and n, where the earth is loosened. Towards g the effect is less.

In a properly loaded mine (fig. 20), the radius, o h, of the surface of explosion is equal to the line of least resistance, a o. If a gallery, m n (fig. 25), lies 1\(\frac{3}{4}\) times the line of least resistance from a properly loaded mine, it is sufficient, to avoid any impression, that it be removed to double that line by propping it with wood. If the diameter of the circle of explosion is greater than twice the line of least resistance, the mine is said to be overcharged; if less, it is undercharged. If the craters of two mines, c d f g and h g i k (fig. 22), overlap, they must, if they do not lie so near that their spheres of activity, t r s, pass into each other, receive a stronger charge to produce the ordinary crater. Fig. 23 shows four mines whose circles of explosion overlap. Fougasses are made by digging pits from eight to ten feet deep, and placing in them well pitched wooden boxes, loaded with powder, bombs, and grenades, and provided with saucissons. These mines, A (fig. 28), are used against the saps along the capitals; the fougasses, B, are to destroy part of the crowning of the covered-way; the mines, C, are directed against the lodgment in the re-entering place-of-arms; the mines, D, defend the foot of the breach; the mines, E, are to destroy the hostile lodgments in the interior of bastion or ravelin. When time is lacking, fougasses can be established as at F, and are then called rosaries. Where saucissons cross each other, as at m, they are laid one under the other, being sunk at m and brought up again by other shafts at n and p. Fig. 31 shows the effect of a mine in solid mason-work; fig. 32, upon a vault; fig. 34, as globe of compression against a gallery.

Subterranean Warfare

As the approaches of the assailants are made usually only along the capitals, the gallery m p (fig. 13), running forward from the foot of the counterscarp, is the only one established at first; it is regarded as a listening gallery, but fourneaux are placed in it also. Subsequently small galleries, a b and c d, are run across through this; finally, for the purpose of blowing up the breach and counter-batteries, the crosses e f f and the galleries mlnm are established, from which the new crosses, e g g and e h h, can be thrown out. The gallery m l n m is called the magistral gallery. Frequently, also, several rows of mines are established, one above the other (pl. 51, fig. 26), D E F, so as to explode them in succession. In order to extend the circle of efficiency of the counter-mines further than, from want of air, it can be carried by the listening galleries, the gallery CCCC (fig. 29) is constructed, parallel with the magistral gallery GGGG, and called the enveloping gallery. From this the enemy’s fourth parallel is blown into the air. The two are connected by the galleries DD. Still another enveloping gallery may be thrown forward. The listening galleries, HH, run further out into the country, and from them are thrown out, according to circumstances, the fourneaux, a b c. The gallery of communication, E, along the capital, is called the capital-gallery. Fig. 30 shows a complete system of mines for a front of attack.

Pontoon Service

The object of pontoon service is to effect the passage of armies over rivers. As the building of bridges upon trestles and piles is generally understood, we shall occupy ourselves here only with the construction of bridges of boats, or pontoon bridges. The boats or pontoons are made either of copper or iron plate, or of wood sheathed with iron. A pontoon (figs. 44–49) consists of the body, BC, the stem, AB, and the stern, CD, and is 30 feet long, 5 feet 9 inches wide above and 3 feet 8 inches below in the centre, sharpened to both ends. The height is in the middle 2 feet 6 inches, at the stem 3 feet, and at the stern 2 feet 10 inches. E is the floor, F, the two sides; a are the flooring-boards, b, the side-boards. Small pieces, d d e f g h i k, serve to hold the pontoon together, and it is provided also with the requisite iron platings. Fig. 44 shows the side view; fig. 45, the upper view; fig. 46, the longitudinal section; fig. 47, the front view; fig. 48, the cross-section, and fig. 49, the rear view of a wooden pontoon whose weight is 16 cwt. The pontoneer implements for the service of the pontoon are: the pontoon kedge (fig. 35), a three-fluked anchor, usually four feet long; the steering-oar (fig. 37), with a sixteen feet long handle, a, the blade, b, and, when the rudder rests upon the wale, the reinforcement, a (fig. 36); the pulling-oar (fig. 38) is only ten feet long, in other respects like the steering-oar, save that the blade, b, is rounded; the paddle (fig. 39) is only five feet long, and the handle, a, and blade, b, are in one piece; at one end is the crutch, c, and at the other the iron mounting, d; the boat hooks (figs. 40 and 41) serve to hold the pontoon fast to any object.

To throw a pontoon bridge, the first step is to lay the ground sills, whose upper surface must lie one foot seven inches above the level of the water. Then the first pontoon on each side is placed in the proper direction, and the five bridge-sleepers are laid upon these and the ground sills, when the pontoon is again exactly aligned and firmly anchored. Then the chesses are stretched, but not so far as to interfere with the laying of the second set of sleepers. The two next pontoons are then properly placed, the sleepers laid, and so on until the bridge is completed. The pontoons are attached to each other by cross-ropes. Fig. 52 shows the upper view of a pontoon bridge, with the ordinary span, and fig. 53, one with a greater span, for rivers having little current, or where but light weights are to be passed over. In the bridge with the greater space, the string-pieces rest only on three gun-wales in two pontoons. To effect this, a scaffold (fig. 51) of five cross-beams, a, the same thickness as the string-pieces, and 6 feet 6 inches long, and two tie-beams from 5 to 6 inches thick, is laid over the pontoon, and the bridge sleepers are laid only upon this scaffold. If the bridge with ordinary span is to remain standing for some time, then in each pontoon a trestle, A (fig. 50), is placed, of which the cross-piece stands three inches higher than the gunwale of the pontoon, so that the string-pieces rest upon the trestles.

Fig. 42 shows a movable foot bridge. Each trestle consists of two feet, F (fig. 43 shows their ground plan), with four cross sleepers, a, four strutts, b, and four posts, c. To place the head, d, upon which the bridge floor rests, at any required height, the posts, c, are bored with holes at every foot, to receive iron bolts, which pass also through iron plating on the ends of the heads. The string-pieces of the foot bridge are seventeen feet long by five or six inches through; the planks are seventeen feet long, six inches broad, and two and a half inches thick.

  1. Body (Leib) regiments in the German service are those regiments which are attached to the person of a sovereign prince.
  2. Throughout this treatise on tactics the word “Zug” is uniformly rendered by “company,” that being the nearest equivalent most suited to convey a correct idea of the movements to an American reader. The word means, however, literally the eighth part of a battalion of four companies, according to the organization of the German armies, which is principally referred to in this treatise, and would thus be half a company, or, by our organization, a “platoon.” In all the movements, however, it corresponds exactly with our “company,” which is also the eighth part of the battalion proper. The words of command are also the German and not the American, though they are sometimes very nearly the same.